What are the reasons responsible for the rise of Buganda kingdom?
The Buganda Kingdom was geographically on the shores of Lake Victoria; that means it is found in the interlacutrine region. It grew to its apex by the mid of the 19th Century. This was highly centralized monarchy and was one of the daughter states that came into existence after the collapse of the vastly expanded BunyoroKitara Kingdom.
By the second half of the 19th Century, Buganda became one of the strongest and largest Kingdoms in the interlacustrine region. They conquest and controlled several Kingdoms. Buganda Kingdom was under the leadership of Kabaka Mutesa. The following are the reasons responsible for rise of Buganda kingdom;-
1. Centralization of power. The Kabaka governed the political organ and was considered as overall ruler. All political power was concentrated in his hands. He appointed all leaders on merit and dismissed all chiefs. His decision was final and binding. There was a hierarchy in administration, whereby there were a number of chiefs below the Kabaka. They helped to spread Kabaka’s authority throughout the Kingdom. The Kabaka’s throne was hereditary but there was no royal family / clan
2. Organized Administrative System. The Kabaka governed the Kingdom with assistance of advisory council (Lukiiko). The council constituted the Prime Minister (Katikiro), the treasure (Muhanika) and the Chief justice (Mugema) as well as country chiefs; all these were Kabaka’s nominees. The legislative council gave advice to the Kabaka and enacted laws.
3. Stable military machinery: Kabaka established strong and well disciplined army for the sake of maintaining political stability in the state and defend the kingdom from external aggression. The Kabaka used army to maintain law and order, to pin down the rivals powers and pursued expansionist policy.
4. Bureaucratic system of government.
The Bureaucratic system was employed in order to ensure effective administration of the Kingdom; whereby the whole of Buganda was divided into two countries (Gomborola), the sub–countries into parishes (Miluka) and finally perishes into sub–parishes. At all level the chief were Kabaka’s appointees.
5. Kabaka’s marriage in each clan: The Buganda Kingdom had approximately 52 clans, each with its own leadership. These provided the basis for the political unity for the whole administration of the Kingdom. For the sake of political harmony in the Kingdom, Kabaka married almost from every important clan. Hence intermarriages were a political weapon and created the possibility of getting Kabaka from any clan.
6. Agriculture: Goood climate and fertile soil favored crop cultivation. Due to the availability of goods, the population of the Kingdom began in tinkles and became flooded. Also some of them engaged in livestock keeping (pastoralism).
7. Trade: The Buganda Kingdom developed trading contacts with he neighbors that were under governance of Kabaka. Because the Buganda were excellent bark clothes manufactures they participated in commercial activities by exchanging bark clothes for items such as iron tools and with the Bunyoro and cow , cattle, groundnuts and simsim with the iteso , langi and Ankelo.