How did the Romans Govern Rome as a Republic?

Let us to discuss How did the Romans Govern Rome as a Republic

Premier Asked on November 20, 2021 in world-history.
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    The year 509 BC was importance to the Romans, since this was the year in which they overthrew their Etruscan King, the Tyrant Tarquin. The rich families of Rome-the patricians ruled in his place. They made Rome a republic. This is a land by the people and not by a king or queen.

    At first only the patricians had a say in how Rome was governed. A government controlled by a small group like this is called an Oligarchy. The patricians met in the Senate to make laws. Here they debated the pros and cons of each new law. Some of the senators were brilliant orators (people who speak well in public). Many of the laws made by the senate were copied by other countries hundreds of the years later.

    The daily work of government, however, was done by two consuls elected by the citizen of Rome. The consuls ruled with the advice and support of the Senate. One led the army, the other ruled Rome. They were assisted by praetors (judges) and questors (who collected taxes). Lictors walked in front of them carrying the fasces as a symbol of their power. This was a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle.

    The stop them gaining too much power, consuls were only allowed to hold office for one year at a time. After this they were to govern a Roman province. If Rome was attacked, however, the senate could give a consul the power of a dictator for a short time.

    Over the years, the poor people (called plebeians or plebs) wanted a greater say in the way they were governed. They were eventually granted the right to hold an assembly like the senate to make laws, an elected tribune looked after their interest. He could stop a new law simply by saying veto. In 367 BC the plebs were at last given the right to be elected consul. They later gained the right to be elected to the other office as well, such as quaestor, praetor, aedile (in charge of games and public building) and censor.

    The wealth of Rome was envied by other people living close by. For two hundred years the Romans had to defend their city against attack. To do this they made alliances with other cities and built a powerful army. But bit they gained control of much of the rest of the Italy. They fought and defeated the Etruscans to the north and the Samnite’s to the south. As their empire grew, they came into conflict with Carthage. This was a city in North Africa with colonies in Sicily and Sardinia. In 264 BC the Romans invaded Sicily.

    The invasion of Sicily sparked off a long series of wars between Rome and Carthage. We cll them the Punic War. At one stage Rome was nearly defeated by a brilliant general called Hannibal. In May 218 BC he marched the Carthaginian army through Spain and France until the came to the river Rhone. The Romans had every reason to think he would try tp reach Italy by sea, but Hannibal took them by surprise. He crossed the Alps instead. As the Carthaginians climbed the mountains, they were harassed by fierce tribes. There were other changers as well. He lived at a time when he could have talked to old soldiers who had fought with or against, Hannibal as young men.

    Hannibal crossed the Alps in fifteen days. He reached Italy with about 20,000 African and Spanish foot soldiers and 6000 cavalries. In a valley near lake Trasimene in Italy, he laid a trap for the Roman army led by Flaminius.

    Hannibal defeated an even large Roman army at the battle of Cannae. Before the battle he arranged his soldier in the shape of a new moon. Facing them were the highly disciplined Roman soldier. The romans fought close together and joined their shield to make solid wall of iron as they advanced. They were elated when Hannibal’s front began to give way in the center, but it was a trap.

    The Romans were afraid that Hannibal would march on Rome itself, but the city was strong and well defended. Hannibal attacked the rest of Italy instead and devastated the south. This gave the Romans time to recover their strength. They built a fleet and sent an army to Africa to attack Carthage. Hannibal had to go back to defend his homeland, but in 202 BC Scipio, a young Roman general, defeated him at the battle of Zama. Afterwards the Romans gave Scipio the title “Africanus”

    Premier Answered on November 20, 2021.
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