Explain the main causes of armed struggle for independence.
Armed struggle became dominant after 1945 especially in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Angola and South Africa as compared to other forms of liberation this was due to the following factors that accelerated to the application of armed struggle:-
1. Military assistance from USSR, after 1945 USSR consolidated her strength to the zenith it was anti colonialism and sympathizers to African anti colonial struggles. It was ready to provide military support and moral support to liberate the Africans from colonialism thus military struggle.
2. Manchester conference, in this conference the major agenda was to liberate Africans from colonialism by all means peaceful or force. This situation gave Africans courage to use force through armed struggle especially in those colonies where the colonialists were reluctant to grant independence.
3. The role played by ex soldiers, the war veterans of the Second World War came back with awareness and military skills which they had acquired during the war, their skills encouraged many nationalist to apply force to overthrow the colonialists who were not ready to grant independence to Africans.
4. The support from UN under USA and USSR, these nations ere anti colonialism as a result they provided support to African nationalist struggle to use all means to get rid from colonialism.
5. Failures of other methods of liberation, other methods like peaceful means and constitution means failed hence the armed struggle became the last method for getting independence from colonialists.
6. The aftermath of India and Pakistan independence, the independence of Asian countries especially India and Pakistan was a big challenge for the Africans to emulate as a result they used all means of liberation to attain their independence.
7. The role of pan Africans, this played a big role especially after shifting her headquarters from the new world to Africa. It ensured liberation of African nations by all means.
8. The unwillingness of the colonial power to grant independence, some colonial powers were unwilling to grant independence for example the Portugal and British were not willing to grant independence to their colonies hence the Africans decided to use armed struggle to liberate themselves.
9. Intensive exploitation; after the Second World War the colonialists increased exploitation to the Africans resources to revamp their ruined economies. This situation awakened the Africans against the colonialists as a result they used all means to liberate themselves
10. The influence of front line states, these provided military and manpower support to the anti colonial struggle in Africa e.g. Tanganyika during the struggle in south Africa and Namibia or Mozambique.
11.Emergence of cold war after 1945, this was the struggle between USA and USSR, where by every bloc wanted to win more countries in Africa so as to spread their political ideologies of socialism or capitalism, this witnessed the giving up weapons to fight the colonialists.