Distinguish between conductors, semiconductors and insulators

Insulators :An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely, and therefore make it impossible to conduct an electric current under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct electric current more easily.The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors.

A perfect insulator does not exist, because even insulators contain small numbers of mobile charges (charge carriers) which can carry current. In addition, all insulators become electrically conductive when a sufficiently large voltage is applied that the electric field tears electrons away from the atoms. This is known as the breakdown voltage of an insulator.

Some materials such as glass, paper and Teflon, which have high resistivity, are very good electrical insulators. A much larger class of materials, even though they may have lower bulk resistivity, are still good enough to prevent significant current from flowing at normally used voltages, and thus are employed as insulation for electrical wiring and cables. Examples include rubber-like polymers and most plastics

Conductors: A conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of electrical current in one or more directions. For example, a wire is an electrical conductor that can carry electricity along its length.

In metals such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged particles are electrons. Positive charges may also be mobile, such as the cationic electrolyte(s) of a battery, or the mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell. Insulators are non-conducting materials with few mobile charges and support only insignificant electric currents.

Semiconductors: A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Semiconductors are the foundation of modern electronics. Semiconducting materials exist in two types: elemental materials andcompound materials.

The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice. The unique arrangement of the crystal lattice makes silicon and germanium the most commonly used elements in the preparation of semiconducting materials.

An increased knowledge of semiconductor materials and fabrication processes has made possible continuing increases in the complexity and speed of microprocessors and memory devices. Some of the information on this page may be outdated within a year because new discoveries are made in the field frequently. Examples of semiconductors are Silicon, Germanium.

 

Premier Asked on March 26, 2018 in Physics.
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