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  • Premier Asked on May 18, 2019 in History.

    This refers to the type of trade that involved three continents Africa, America and Europe. In this trading system, Africa was the source of cheap labor which was in the form slaves. America was the source of raw materials and Europe was the source of manufactured goods, hence the triangle.

    The main participants were Britain, France, Holland and Portugal. There are various factors that contributed to the rise of the Trans Atlantic slave trade. The Trans Atlantic slave trade was a disaster to Africa. It is one of the factors which contributed to under development in Africa. The Economic effects of Trans Antlantic trade includes:

    1. Removal of African labor; The Trans Atlantic slave trade was associated with the uprooting of many Africans who were taken to provide cheap labor on European plantations in America. The ones who were taken were between the ages of 15 and 35 who made up the productive force in Africa.

    2.Stagnation of African technology; The Trans Atlantic slave trade contributed to the stagnation of African technology. It led to the flooding of European manufactured goods which were exchanged for slaves. Due to these goods , the Africans found it easier to sell their fellow Africans in exchange for manufactured goods hence they neglected production which led to the stagnation of African technology.

    3. Decline of African agricultural production; There was decline in agricultural production due to the loss of labor. Those who were taken as slaves were the ones who were very active in farms, thus their removal led to shortage of labor consequently causing the decline in agricultural production.

    4. Decline of African traditional industries; It contributed to the decline of African traditional industries due to the flooding of European manufactured goods. Due to these goods Africans abandoned production and exchanged their fellow Africans with the Europeans goods. The manufactured goods from Europe also destroyed African traditional industries by killing the market for African local goods.

    5. Insecurity; The major item of trade during the Trans–Atlantic slave trade was slaves. The slaves were acquired through release of ambushing and raiding various villages, these activities contributed to insecurity which disrupted trade and agriculture.

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  • Premier Asked on May 18, 2019 in History.

    The Mfecane refers to the wars and disturbances caused by Shaka and the rise of the Zulu state in South Africa. The Mfecane is also referred to as the time of trouble or turbulence in South Africa. The origin of the Mfecane was Shaka’s expansionist policies that led to the conquering states. The Mfecane played a great role in state formation in Southern Africa:-

    1.Political transformation: The Mfecane led to political transformation in Southern Africa, the former age group communities were transformed into strong centralized states. The Mfecane also forced people to form strong armies to protect themselves from Shaka; these armies were later used for conquest and expansion hence forming states. Zulu is a good example of a state formed due to the Mfecane.

    2.Military advancement:The Mfecane contributed to the introduction of new military weapons such as the short stabbing spears and the cow horn style. These weapons were used for conquest and expansion thus forming states.

    3.Emergency of strong leadership:The Mfecane contributed to the rise of strong leadership; this was needed for protection from the Mfecane. Strong leadership had a big role to play in state formation because the leaders united the people to form states.

    4.Migrations: The societies through which they passed were forced to form strong states to protect themselves from the Mfecane. The movement of the Ngoni from South Africa was not a peaceful process; it involves wars that necessitated unity among the people.



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  • Premier Asked on May 18, 2019 in History.

    Slave mode of production this is the first exploitative mode of production. Here a person became an absolute Property of another man. Slaves dominated by slave masters. The Following are the reasons showing clearly that the pre-colonial Africa did not develop slave as mode of production:-

    1.Slavery existed in few parts of Africa as an institution and not as a mode of production these areas were;

      • (a) In Zanzibar; where by slavery existed after Sultan Seyyid Said shifted his capital from Muscat-Oman to Zanzibar in 1840, so slaves were taken from Central and East Africa to perform various activities or tasks in Zanzibar island like domestic activities such as cooking, mopping, fetching water, keeping gates (watch), taking care of elders and children and others offered labour in cloves and coconut plantations.


      • (b) In Egypt; where by slaves were taken from western Sudan and forest areas to perform various activities during Pharaoh’s regime (Period)(rule), these activities were such as constructing canals, making calendar, building tombs, performing various domestic activities.


    (c)  Maghreb societies (Morocco,Tunisia and Algeria); slaves were taken from various parts of Western Africa And Northern East Africa to perform various activities in Maghreb societies, for example they were taken to offer their labour in Agriculture like palm dates and domestic activities.

    2.Slavery co-existed together with feudalism in many parts of Africa. In Africa slave mode of production was not noted as the mode of production simply because the only mode of production in those areas was feudalism for example in Zanzibar the mode of production was feudalism however slavery also existed there.

    3.In Pre -colonial African societies there was no slave masters or class of slave masters which showed clearly that the mode of production existed in pre -colonial African societies was not slavery and rather it was feudalism.

    4.The level of development of productive forces used during the transition from primitive to feudalism showed that the slavery (Slave mode of production) did not exist in Africa for example some societies which were in transition to feudalism decided to use hoe to cultivate on the land which showed as the mode of production existed was feudalism based on land ownership.


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  • Premier Asked on May 18, 2019 in History.

    Education refers to the transformation of norms, skills and knowledge from one generation to another. Under normal circumstances, education must grow out of the nature of the environment; therefore the most outstanding feature of pre–colonial education was its relevance to Africa.

    1.Informal: Pre–colonial education in Africa was mainly informal; the young acquired knowledge by imitating the elders. In many African societies elders told stories around the fire places in the evening. These stories and all the information that the young received are what are called informal education.

    2.Relevant to the society:It was relevant to the society because it was born out of the environment of the concerned society. It produced well rounded individuals who could fit in their societies; it targeted self community and survival of the society. These was nothing from the alien community because everything stormed from the traditional and customs of the society in question.

    3.It was progressive: Pre–colonial education was progressive because it involved all stages of physical, emotional and mental development of the child. The young people were taught various specialist skills which followed a definite pattern starting from the simple to the complex ones.

    4.It put emphases on moral and social conduct: Pre–colonial education aimed at instilling good morals and social conduct to the young people. African societies had some accepted core valves and elders used to condemn strongly any action or behavior that tended to undermine the promotion of the accepted valves.

    5.Encouraged specializations: Pre–colonial African education encouraged specialization in certain fields. It aimed at preparing the young members of the community for specific responsibilities in future.People trained in activities such as medicine, iron working basketry and pottery.

    6.Aimed at procreation: Pre–colonial education aimed at procreation of production. The existing education system in the society shaped and stimulated production within the society. All activities aimed at production as to sustain the society.

    7.Lacked uniformity: Pre–colonial African education lacked uniformity. It varied from society to society depending on the economic, social and environmental conditions of a given society. Each society had its own customs and traditions depending on the environment of that given society.

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  • Premier Asked on May 16, 2019 in History.

    1.The trade led to stagnation of African technology simply because Africans who were skillful and knowledgeable were taken as slaves to offer their labour in big plantations and mining established by European absentee owners in America during the 15th Century.

    2.The Trade also led to exploitation of African natural resources such as minerals, raw materials etc was taken specifically for the development of European nations.

    3.The trade conducted between Africa and Europe during 15th  lead to destruction of African culture and introduction of European culture in Africa because it was during this contact African way of living, dressing style, marriage, eating Etc were destroyed by Europeans as Africans began to imitate what Europeans brought to African societies.

    4.Trade lead to the collapse of African trade that existed before the 15th Century hence led to underdevelopment of African continent and development of European nations simply because it was that trade that culminated the situation for European development in all aspects (socially, economically and politically) and African underdevelopment in all aspects.

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  • Premier Asked on April 28, 2019 in Elimu Dini ya Kiislamu.

    Kusimamishwa swala ni kuswali kwa kutekeleza kwa ukamilifu sharti zote za swala, nguzo zote za swala, kuwa na khushui (unyenyekevu) wakati wa kutekeleza masharti ya swala na wakati wa kuswali kuanzia mwanzo wa swala mpaka mwisho wa swala na kudumu na swala mpaka mwisho wa uhai.Kusimamishwa swala kumesisitizwa sana katika Uislamu kwa sababu zifuatazo:

    1.Kusimamisha swala ni amri ya Mwenyezi Mungu (s.w), Amri ya kusimamisha swala imesisitizwa katika aya mbalimbali za Qur-an, (Qur-an “29:45”, “4:103”, “14:31”)

    2.Kusimamisha swala ni nguzo ya Uislamu, Kusimamisha swalani nguzo ya pili ya Uislamu baada ya shahada kama tunavyojifunza katika hadithi ifuatayo,

    ”Ibn Umar (r.a) ameeleza kuwa Mtume wa Mwenyezi Mungu amesema “Uislamu umjengwa juu ya nguzo tano, kushuhudia kuwa hapana Mola ila Mwenyezi Mungu na kushuhudia kuwa Muhammad ni mtume wa Mwenyezi Mungu, kusimamisha swala, kutoa zakat, kufunga ramadhani na kuhiji nyumba takatifu (Al-kaaba) kwa mwenye uwezo” (Bukhari na Muslim).

    3. Kusimamisha swala ndiyo kitambulisho cha Muislamu, Amesimulia Jabir (r.a) kuwa Mtume wa Mwenyezi Mungu amesema “Tofauti kati ya mja na kafiri ni kuacha swala”. Muslim.

    Biraidah (r.a) ameeleza kuwa Mtume (s.a.w) amesema, “Tofauiti iliyopo kati yetu na wao ni mwenye kuacha swala, Mwenye kuacha swala si Muumini (ni kafiri)” (Ahmad, Abu Daudi, AN-Nasai, Tirmidh, Ibn Majah).

    4. Swala ni ufunhguo wa peponi, Katika hadithi aliyosimulia Jabir bin Abdillah(r.a) Mtume (s.a.w) amesema: “Ufunguo wa peponi ni swala na ufunguo wa swala ni tohara” (Muslim).

    5. Swala ndio amali ya kwanza kuhesabiwa siku ya Hesabu, Abuu Huraira (r.a) amesimulia kuwa Mtume wa Mwenyezi Mungu amesema Amali ya kwanza atakayo ulizwa mja siku ya kiama (siku ya hukumu) ni swala. Swala zake zikiwa zimekamilika atafuzu, na kama swala zake zitakuwa pungufu atafeli na kuhasirika. Kama swala zake za faradhi zitakuwa zimepungua, Mwenyezi Mungu mtukufu wa daraja atasema ‘Angalia kwa mja wangu kama ana swala za ziada (swala za sunna) ili zichukuliwe kujazia sehemu iliyopungua katika swala za faradhi. Kisah ndio vitendo vyake vingine vitaangaliwa kwa namna hiyo hiyo” (Tirmidh, Abu Daud, An-Nasai, Ibn Majah na Ahmad).

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  • Premier Asked on April 28, 2019 in Elimu Dini ya Kiislamu.

    1.Mafundisho ya mtume (s.a.w) yako hai na yamehifadhiwa kwa ahadi ya Allah (s.w), Pia sunna zake Mtume Muhhammad (s.a.w) zimehifadhiwa kikamilifu kiasi ambacho mtu anaweza kujua bila shaka yoyote ni yep mafundisho ya mtume juu ya jambo Fulani na yepi ambayo Mtume (s.a.w) kazuliwa (15:9).

    2.Mwenyezi Mungu amakamilisha mwongozo wake kwa nabii Muhhammad (s.a.w) na hivyo uislamu ni dini (mfumo) wa maisha kamilifu kwa walimwengu wote. Mwenyezi Mungu anathibitisha hili katika Qur-an (5:3)

    3.Mtume Muhhamad (s.a.w) hakuletwa kwa taifa au kwa watu maalum bali kwa walimwengu wote (7:158)

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  • Premier Asked on April 28, 2019 in Elimu Dini ya Kiislamu.

    Kuamini siku ya mwisho (siku ya malipo) ni nguza ya tano ya imani ya kiislamu, pamoja na nguzo hii kuwa ya tano kaika orodha ya nguzo za imani ni nguzo ya msingi mno kwani ndio nguzo inayompa mja msukumo wa kutenda wema na kujiepusha na maovu katika maisha ya kila siku kwa matarajio ya kupata makazi mema ya pepomi na kuepukana na adhabu kali ya motoni.

    Kuamini siku ya malipo ni miongozi mwa mambo ya ghaibu ambayo mwanaadamu hana uwezo wa kuyadiriki kwa milango yafahamu bali huhitajia matumizi makubwa ya akili pamoja na elimu ya ufunuo (Wahyi) kutoka kwa Allah (s.w) kupitia kwa Mitume wake. Mitume walifahamishwa vyema mazingira halisi ya siku ya mwisho ,iloi waweaze kuwaonya na kuwatahadharisha wanaadamu kwa maisha hayo kwa msisitizo wa uhakika. Kimantiki lazima kuwepo na siku ya malipo kwa sababu zifuatazi:-

    1.Mwanaadamu aulizwe juu ya vipaji na neema mbalimbali alizotunukiwa na mola wake alitumiaje, Pamoja na elimu yote aliyotunukiwa binaadamu bado amepewa uhuru wa kuamua juu ya kuamini Mwenyezi Mungu na kumuabudu inavyostahili au kumkana Mwenyezi Mungu na kuwaabudu wengine badala yake,Kimantiki ni lazima pawe na siku ya malipo, ili mwanaadamu aulizwe jinsi alivyozitumia neema za Mwenyezi Mungu (s.w) na vipaji alivyotunukiwa katika kuendea lengo la kuumbwa kwakwe (Qur-an 102:8).

    2.Mfumo au njia sahihi ya maisha ibainishwe, Kimantiki hatuna budi kukubali kuwa njia ya maisha iliyo sahihi ni lazima iwe mija tu kwasababu mwanaadamu ni jamii moja yenye lengo moja la maisha na wenye usawa katika kuhitaji mahitaji muhimu yanayowafanya waishi kwa furaha na amani.

    Kimantiki njia hii ni lazima ifundishwa au ielekezwe na Muumba wa mwanaadamu, hivi ndivyo hasa alivyofanya Muumba kwa kuleta mitume na vitabu vya kuelekeza njia hiyo, Lakini pamoja na kuletewa mwongozo kwa njia ya Mitume na vitabu, bado wanaadamu wamepewa uhuru wa kufuata mwongo huu wakiamua kufanya hivyo au kuukanusha na kufuata miongozo mengine waliyoiunda wao wenyewe. Hivyo ni lazima iwepo siku ya mwisho ili ibainike dini au njia sahihi ya maisha (Qur-an 16:39).

    3.Ubainike ukweli kwa waliozuliwa uovu, Pamoja na ulazima wakubainishwa tofauti kati ya njia za maisha, pia kuna ulazima wa kuwa na siku ya kubainishwa haki kati ya watu binafsi au vikundi vya watu. Mtu binafsi au kikundi cha watu waweza kusingiziwa jambo na pakatolewa ushahidi wa uongo kwa maslahi ya mtu au kikudni Fulani mpaka ikawa vigumu kwa walimwengu kuona ukweli kinyume na shutuma. Ni lazima pawe na siku ambayo ukweli utabainishwa na mjjuzi wa mambo yote, ndio mana tunaposingiziwa jambo tunamtupia Mwenyezi Mungu kwa viapo tukiwa na uhakika kabisa kuwa kuna siku tutakuwa mbele yake atatuamua kwa uadilifu.

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