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  • Premier Asked 16 hours ago in world-history.

    In 1898-99, many young and discontented peasants, in northern China, joined a secret society called “The Society of the Righteous Harmonious Fists” or “Boxer”. In 1899 they attacked vulnerable foreign outposts run missionaries in Shandong Province. Priests, nuns and Christian converts were murdered. Railway track and telegraph lines were sabotaged.

    They treaty powers, worried by the growth of anti foreigner feeling, demanded that the Chinese Government stamp out the Boxer movement and punish the offenders. Instead, highly placed official in the Manchu Government, and in Shandong Province, gave the Boxer every encouragement.

    Famine, high taxes and poverty provided the right background for a rebellion against the foreigners who seemed to be taking over China. Some of the Chinese people were afraid the new railways and telegraph lines across the countryside, would disturb the graves of their ancestors.

    There was deep resentment, too, at the interference the missionaries in Chinese everyday life. Above all, there was hatred for foreigners. Many were arrogant, grasping and condescending. By 1900 most people in China from the Dowager empress to the humblest peasant opposed the foreigner.

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  • Premier Asked 1 day ago in world-history.

    The romans were the masters of the ancient world for well over 500 years. Their empire began as group of mud huts built by the Latins in about 800BC. They chose a site on the hills above the river Tiber where the river was easily crossed. This settlement became a prosperous trading Centre.

    In 616BC their land was seized by the Etruscans, more advanced nation than the Latins. At Rome they built a town of houses and streets in place of mud huts. They drained the marshes to build the Forum (market place), recruited an army of citizens and built a town wall.

    They also built a huge temple to the god Jupiter on one of the hills. A council of leading mean, the Senate, advised the Etruscan King. Rome became a strong fortress town. Ships could sail up the river Tiber as far as Rome. The city grew in wealth importance and size.

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  • Premier Asked 1 day ago in world-history.

    At the same time that American women began to demand the vote, a similar movement in Britain the woman’s Suffrage Societies was founded in 1867 (at the time of the Second Reform Bill), but it made little progress.

    At that time women were treated very much as second class citizen in Britain. They did not get equal pay for equal work, not where they treated equally with men when applying for a job. Many women realized that they would only be able to improve their position if they had the vote.

    Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst and her two daughter Christabel and Sylvia decided positive action was needed. They founded the women’s Social and Political Union in 1903 to campaign actively for votes for woman. They suffragette began their protest by heckling government ministers at meeting and putting up posters. But the movement later turned to violet protest after some suffragettes were badly treated in prison.

    They called off their protest at the start of the First World War, and when it ended in 1918 parliament passed the Representation of the people Act. This gave the votes to;

    • all men over the of 21,
    • all women over the age of 30.

    Finally, in 1928 the equal Franchise Act gave the vote to women on the same terms as for men. At long last all adults had the vote. Universal suffrage had arrived. The voting age was further reduced from 1 to 18 years by the Representation of the People Act in 1969.


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  • Premier Asked 1 day ago in world-history.

    Towards the end of the fourth century AD a new Roman Emperor called Theodosius took steps to make Christianity the only religion of the Roman people. He banned the old Roman religion and ordered the destruction of its temples and images of the gods.

    When Theodosius died in AD 395, the Roman empire was divided between his two sons. This time the division was for good. The West was left of fend for itself and lasted only eighty years. It was badly led by weak emperors its long frontier. As results, the Romans were no longer able to keep back the barbarian tribes.

    On 24 August AD 410 the Visigoths from Germany, led by their king Alaric, sacked Rome. To Romans everywhere it was catastrophe. Alaric had demanded gold from the Emperor Honorius in Ravenna (in Italy). When this was refuse, he let his soldiers go on the rampage through the streets of Rome. It was the sort disaster in Roman history.

    Other Calamities soon followed. Gaul and Spain fell to the Visigoths. Africa fell to the Vandals. Britain was colonized by the Angel and Saxons. Bit by bit the empire was split into separate states, each ruled y different tribes of barbarians. Sometimes the fought with the Romans and sometimes against them.

    Visigoths, Franks and Burgundians, for instance, joined with the Romans to defeat Attila the Hun in AD 145. Only four years later, however, Rome was sacked again, this time by the Vandals. Only the interventions of the Pope stopped them from burning the city to the ground. By AD 476 the barbarians had overrun the empire in the West. The last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, had been overthrown.


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  • Premier Asked on November 20, 2021 in world-history.

    The Medieval Kings ruled with the aid of a council. The barons and earls who advised the king and ran the great offices of state had immersed power and great wealth. These was a cause of rival, especial when a royal favorite quarreled with the king or queen.

    In the fifteenth century, along drawn out conflict was fought for the throne between the great families of York (white rose) and Lancaster (Red Rose). They were backed by private armies of supporters who fought of battles of this, the first English Civil War.

    It was called the Wars of the Roses but although the fighting lasted, off and on, from 1455 to 1485, there were long periods of relative quiet in between. Nonetheless, many great nobles were killed and warring armies disturbed county life. This is part of her a later written by Margaret Paston from her home in Norfolk to her Husband in London.

    There’re three major wars of the Roses. The first, between 1459 and 1461, ended with the Battle of Townton when Edwards, the son of Richard, Duke of York, deposed Henry VI. As Edward IV, he was supported at first by the powerful Early of Warwick, but Warwick soon changed sides when Edward resisted his attempts to acquire greater power. Instead, he supported Queen Margaret and her son, Prince Edward, in their attempt to restore the House of Lancaster to the Throne.

    This was the start of the second War of Rose (1469-71). Edward IV fled to France but raise a new army and returned to Britain. He defeated Warwick at Barnet, and Margaret and Edward at Tewkesbury in 1471.

    The third war began soon after Edward IV died on 9 April 1483. His 12 years-old son Edward V was deposed by his Uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, on 26 June 1483. He was put in the Tower of London together with his brother. The two young Princes in the Tower were never heard of again.

    The new king, Richard III, was challenge by Henry Tudor, a distant. Lancastrian claimant to the throne. In 1485 he landed in Wales and defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. As Henry VII he began the long region of the Tudors.

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  • Premier Asked on November 20, 2021 in world-history.

    The black Death made many country people discontented. This unrest came to a ahead when peasant in the east and south led a rebellion in 1381. It began with a tax. In 1377 the government imposed a poll tax of four pence of each person of the realm, as well males as females above the age of fourteen years.

    Poor people thought this was unfair, since they had to pay the same as arch people. In 1379, however, a new tax was introduced in which each early of England paid £4 and all the mayors of the large towns paid €2. Since most families with children under the age of sixteen only paid a total of 4d(2p), they thought this was much fairer.

    But in 1381 the government went back to the method used earlier in 1377.only this time they wanted more money. Every person had to give three goats as well by the male as by the females, who have [passed the age of fifteen years.

    The outcry was enormous. People refused to pay the tax. Refusal soon led to rebellion. It began in earnest on 30 May 1381 when the King’s tax collectors in Essex were told by the peasant of Brentwood, they would have no dealing with them nor pay them a penny”, Violence erupted and spread to neighboring villages and across the Themes into Kent. The rebels seized towns and marched on Landon.

    On 12 June 1381 a huge crowd of peasant from Kent assembled at Blackheath on the South bank of the Thames. A similar crowd from Essex had gathered on the north bank as well. On the following day, 13 June 1381, King Richard II and his leading adviser rowed down the Thames on a barge to Rotherhithe intending to speak to the rebels. But the peasants, saw the kings barge coming, they began to shout and made such a cry, as though all t devils of hell had been among them.

    Much to the anger of the crowd, the barge pulled away again without landing. And when these people saw that, they cried all one voice, “Let us go to London” and so they took their way thither.

    In fact, the king was playing for time. The mayor had gone back to London for reinforcement. When they arrived, the revolt inland on collapsed, the peasant went home but the rebellion in the country continued for several weeks. In the end, however, among of the ringleaders were caught and either executed or imprisoned.

    As for the king, he went back on his word. Ana act of Parliament in May 1382 decreed, that all obligation made by compulsion ad menace in the time of this riot shall be wholly quashed

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  • Premier Asked on November 20, 2021 in world-history.

    Bishops and abbots were used to power in the Middle Ages. By 1150 the church in Britain was huge and very rich owed its power and wealth to that fact almost everyone in Britain was a Christian and there was only one church – the Roman Catholic Church. The Archbishop of Canterbury was the leading priest in the church in England. He looked for spiritual guidance to the Pope in Rome-the head of western Christendom.

    You can get some idea of the power of the Church if you visit a great Cathedral like Ely. A building like this would be a magnificent achievement if built today with the aid of modern machine, but medieval cathedrals were built by hand. The cost was enormous.

    The church was immensely rich. It wealth came from different sources. As you have seen, the peasants paid tenth of their produce to the Church as a tithe. Rich people gave money and sometimes property when they died. These funds paid for new cathedral and met the cost of running the church. Great wealth gave the abbots and bishop great power. They were treated as they were early and barons.

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  • Premier Asked on November 20, 2021 in world-history.

    The year 509 BC was importance to the Romans, since this was the year in which they overthrew their Etruscan King, the Tyrant Tarquin. The rich families of Rome-the patricians ruled in his place. They made Rome a republic. This is a land by the people and not by a king or queen.

    At first only the patricians had a say in how Rome was governed. A government controlled by a small group like this is called an Oligarchy. The patricians met in the Senate to make laws. Here they debated the pros and cons of each new law. Some of the senators were brilliant orators (people who speak well in public). Many of the laws made by the senate were copied by other countries hundreds of the years later.

    The daily work of government, however, was done by two consuls elected by the citizen of Rome. The consuls ruled with the advice and support of the Senate. One led the army, the other ruled Rome. They were assisted by praetors (judges) and questors (who collected taxes). Lictors walked in front of them carrying the fasces as a symbol of their power. This was a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle.

    The stop them gaining too much power, consuls were only allowed to hold office for one year at a time. After this they were to govern a Roman province. If Rome was attacked, however, the senate could give a consul the power of a dictator for a short time.

    Over the years, the poor people (called plebeians or plebs) wanted a greater say in the way they were governed. They were eventually granted the right to hold an assembly like the senate to make laws, an elected tribune looked after their interest. He could stop a new law simply by saying veto. In 367 BC the plebs were at last given the right to be elected consul. They later gained the right to be elected to the other office as well, such as quaestor, praetor, aedile (in charge of games and public building) and censor.

    The wealth of Rome was envied by other people living close by. For two hundred years the Romans had to defend their city against attack. To do this they made alliances with other cities and built a powerful army. But bit they gained control of much of the rest of the Italy. They fought and defeated the Etruscans to the north and the Samnite’s to the south. As their empire grew, they came into conflict with Carthage. This was a city in North Africa with colonies in Sicily and Sardinia. In 264 BC the Romans invaded Sicily.

    The invasion of Sicily sparked off a long series of wars between Rome and Carthage. We cll them the Punic War. At one stage Rome was nearly defeated by a brilliant general called Hannibal. In May 218 BC he marched the Carthaginian army through Spain and France until the came to the river Rhone. The Romans had every reason to think he would try tp reach Italy by sea, but Hannibal took them by surprise. He crossed the Alps instead. As the Carthaginians climbed the mountains, they were harassed by fierce tribes. There were other changers as well. He lived at a time when he could have talked to old soldiers who had fought with or against, Hannibal as young men.

    Hannibal crossed the Alps in fifteen days. He reached Italy with about 20,000 African and Spanish foot soldiers and 6000 cavalries. In a valley near lake Trasimene in Italy, he laid a trap for the Roman army led by Flaminius.

    Hannibal defeated an even large Roman army at the battle of Cannae. Before the battle he arranged his soldier in the shape of a new moon. Facing them were the highly disciplined Roman soldier. The romans fought close together and joined their shield to make solid wall of iron as they advanced. They were elated when Hannibal’s front began to give way in the center, but it was a trap.

    The Romans were afraid that Hannibal would march on Rome itself, but the city was strong and well defended. Hannibal attacked the rest of Italy instead and devastated the south. This gave the Romans time to recover their strength. They built a fleet and sent an army to Africa to attack Carthage. Hannibal had to go back to defend his homeland, but in 202 BC Scipio, a young Roman general, defeated him at the battle of Zama. Afterwards the Romans gave Scipio the title “Africanus”

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