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  • Premier Asked on November 20, 2019 in Physics.

    We see the sky as colored because our atmosphere interacts with the sunlight passing through it. This phenomenon is called “scattering.” The type of scattering responsible for blue sky is known as Rayleigh scattering. Because this effect becomes sharply more pronounced as the energy of light increases, wavelengths at the blue end of the spectrum, where energy is the highest, are scattered preferentially. The sunlight reaching our eyes has a high ratio of short, bluish wavelengths compared to medium and long wavelengths, so we perceive the sky as being blue.

    Without an atmosphere the sky appears black, as evidenced by the lunar sky in pictures taken from the moon. But even a black sky has some lightness. At night, the sky always has a faint color, called “skyglow” by astronomers. Much of this skyglow is light pollution – sources of light prevalent in urban areas that reduce our ability to see stars, planets, and other celestial phenomena.

    In the absence of light from human sources, skyglow is present due to a faint airglow in the upper atmosphere (a permanent, low-grade aurora) and starlight scattered in the atmosphere. Even beyond our atmosphere, faint skyglow is caused by sunlight reflected off interplanetary dust (zodiacal light), and background light from faint, unresolved stars and nebulosity.

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  • Premier Asked on October 8, 2019 in Biology.

    Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide to produce sugars. Chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun to conserve free energy in the form of ATP and reduce NADP to NADPH through a complex set of processes called photosynthesis. Chloroplast has the following features to fulfill its function of photosynthesis process:-

    1.Presence of membrane: The membrane of the chloroplasts is semi-permeable, and it regulates the entry and exit of molecules from the chloroplast. In addition, they are the site for synthesis of certain lipid molecules as well pigments like carotenoids that are required for light harvesting.

    2.Presence of grana: Grana is the site of light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and the associated photosystems. This is where photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and  carotenoids, absorb light energy, which is then used to break down water molecules, and ultimately give rise to ATP, NADPH2 and oxygen.

    3.Presence of stroma: it is the site for the dark or light-independent reactions of photosynthesis. The enzymes in the stroma utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, as well as the ATP and NADPH2 molecules released from grana, to synthesize sugar molecules and starch. This process is also known as carbon dioxide fixation, and occurs through a series of reactions collectively called Calvin cycle.

    4.Presence of photosynthetic pigments: Chlorophyll and carotenoids are both photosynthetic pigment found in chloroplast, that are involved in photosynthesis. Both chlorophyll and carotenoids are responsible for harvesting light, absorbing photons and transferring the excitation energy to the photosynthetic reaction center


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  • Premier Asked on October 8, 2019 in Biology.

    Proteins are compounds of carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. Some protein also contains sulphur and phosphorus. Proteins are long chains of Amino acid formed through condensation.

    Approximately there are twenty Amino acids that occur naturally. The human body makes ten of these amino acids. These are called NON – ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS. The other ten amino acids must be obtained from the diet they are called ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.

    We get essential amino acids by eating food rich in protein. Food that contains all the essential amino acid is called first class proteins, animal protein most fall in these group. Second class protein lack one or  more essential amino acids, most plant proteins fall in this group. The main functions of protein includes:

    1.The body use proteins for tissue growth and repair such as healing of wounds and replacement of skin and mucus membranes.

    2.Antibodies are made of proteins, Antibodies are important in offering immunity to the body

    3.Enzymes which help us to digest food are protein in nature. In addition hormones, the chemical messengers in our bodies are also protein.

    4.They are alternative source of energy in the body

    5.They are basic component of a cell from which different body structure are made.

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  • Premier Asked on September 19, 2019 in Kiswahili.
    1. Huwasilishwa kwa njia ya mdomo na/au matendo. Huwasilishwa kwa njia ya maandishi
    2. Fasihi simulizi ni mali ya jamii. Kazi andishi ni mali ya mwandishi (na mchapishaji)
    3. Msimulizi anaweza kubadilisha sehemu fulani


    Kitabu kilichoandikwa hakiwezi kubadilishwa
    4. Huhifadhiwa na kurisishwa kizazi hadi kizazi (akilini). Huhifadhiwa vitabuni
    5. Kazi simulizi hubadilika na wakati Kazi andishi haibadiliki na wakati
    6. Huhitaji msimulizi na hadhira yake wawe mahali pamoja wakati wa masimulizi Msomaji anaweza kusoma kitabu cha hadithi peke yake, mahali popote, wakati wowote
    7. Mtu yeyote anaweza kutunga na kusimulia Ni lazima mwandishi na msomaji wawe na uwezo wa kusoma
    8. Hutumia wahusika changamano (wanyama, watu, mazimwi n.k) Hutumia wahusika wanadamu
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  • Premier Asked on September 19, 2019 in Kiswahili.

    Tungo tata ni tungo ambazo huwa na maana zaidi ya moja ndani yake. Mara nyingi utata katika lugha ya kiswahili hujitokeza katika maandishi kuliko kwenye mazungumzo kwa sababu mazungumzo huzingatia zaidi mazingira ya wazungumzaji na wakati. Zifuatazo njia mbalimbali zinazo tumika katika kuondosha utata katika lugha ya kiswahili:-

    (1) Kutoa maana zaidi kwa yale maneno yenye maana zaidi ya moja na kuongeza viambishi ili kubainisha maana iliokusudiwa. Kwa  Mfano Mbuzi wake ameibiwa au Mbuzi wake wameibiwa

    (2) Kuzingatia kanuni za uandishi hasa ni matumizi na alama na vituo tunapoandika. Mfano   (i) Mama latifa yupo? (ii) Mama, latifa yupo. (iii) Mama, latifa yupo? (iv) Mama latifa yupo.

    (3) Kuzingatia matumizi sahihi katika mazingira muafaka ya vinganishi  na vihusishi. Kwa Mfano Ali anakula wali kwa kuku baala ya  Ali anakula wali na kuku

    (4) Tueke shada au mkwazo kwa yale maneno yanayohitaji hali hiyo, ili kupata maana iliyokusudiwa. Kwa mfano Ali ameonekana barabara

    (5) Tuyaepuke matumizi mabaya ya fasihi, kwa sehemu zisizo hitajika yaani tutmie lugha ya kawaida. Kwa Mfano Baada ya kusema Ali amevaa miwani basi tuseme Ali amelewa.

    (6) Tueke bayana matumizi ya vitendo kwa kutoa maelezo zaidi kwa vile vitendo vinavyotoa maana zaidi ya moja tunapotumia katika tungo. Kwa mfano Baada ya kusema mtoto wake ameibiwa basi tuseme Vitu vya mtoto  wake vimeibiwa.

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  • Premier Asked on May 18, 2019 in History.

    This refers to the type of trade that involved three continents Africa, America and Europe. In this trading system, Africa was the source of cheap labor which was in the form slaves. America was the source of raw materials and Europe was the source of manufactured goods, hence the triangle.

    The main participants were Britain, France, Holland and Portugal. There are various factors that contributed to the rise of the Trans Atlantic slave trade. The Trans Atlantic slave trade was a disaster to Africa. It is one of the factors which contributed to under development in Africa. The Economic effects of Trans Antlantic trade includes:

    1. Removal of African labor; The Trans Atlantic slave trade was associated with the uprooting of many Africans who were taken to provide cheap labor on European plantations in America. The ones who were taken were between the ages of 15 and 35 who made up the productive force in Africa.

    2.Stagnation of African technology; The Trans Atlantic slave trade contributed to the stagnation of African technology. It led to the flooding of European manufactured goods which were exchanged for slaves. Due to these goods , the Africans found it easier to sell their fellow Africans in exchange for manufactured goods hence they neglected production which led to the stagnation of African technology.

    3. Decline of African agricultural production; There was decline in agricultural production due to the loss of labor. Those who were taken as slaves were the ones who were very active in farms, thus their removal led to shortage of labor consequently causing the decline in agricultural production.

    4. Decline of African traditional industries; It contributed to the decline of African traditional industries due to the flooding of European manufactured goods. Due to these goods Africans abandoned production and exchanged their fellow Africans with the Europeans goods. The manufactured goods from Europe also destroyed African traditional industries by killing the market for African local goods.

    5. Insecurity; The major item of trade during the Trans–Atlantic slave trade was slaves. The slaves were acquired through release of ambushing and raiding various villages, these activities contributed to insecurity which disrupted trade and agriculture.

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  • Premier Asked on May 18, 2019 in History.

    The Mfecane refers to the wars and disturbances caused by Shaka and the rise of the Zulu state in South Africa. The Mfecane is also referred to as the time of trouble or turbulence in South Africa. The origin of the Mfecane was Shaka’s expansionist policies that led to the conquering states. The Mfecane played a great role in state formation in Southern Africa:-

    1.Political transformation: The Mfecane led to political transformation in Southern Africa, the former age group communities were transformed into strong centralized states. The Mfecane also forced people to form strong armies to protect themselves from Shaka; these armies were later used for conquest and expansion hence forming states. Zulu is a good example of a state formed due to the Mfecane.

    2.Military advancement:The Mfecane contributed to the introduction of new military weapons such as the short stabbing spears and the cow horn style. These weapons were used for conquest and expansion thus forming states.

    3.Emergency of strong leadership:The Mfecane contributed to the rise of strong leadership; this was needed for protection from the Mfecane. Strong leadership had a big role to play in state formation because the leaders united the people to form states.

    4.Migrations: The societies through which they passed were forced to form strong states to protect themselves from the Mfecane. The movement of the Ngoni from South Africa was not a peaceful process; it involves wars that necessitated unity among the people.



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  • Premier Asked on May 18, 2019 in History.

    Slave mode of production this is the first exploitative mode of production. Here a person became an absolute Property of another man. Slaves dominated by slave masters. The Following are the reasons showing clearly that the pre-colonial Africa did not develop slave as mode of production:-

    1.Slavery existed in few parts of Africa as an institution and not as a mode of production these areas were;

      • (a) In Zanzibar; where by slavery existed after Sultan Seyyid Said shifted his capital from Muscat-Oman to Zanzibar in 1840, so slaves were taken from Central and East Africa to perform various activities or tasks in Zanzibar island like domestic activities such as cooking, mopping, fetching water, keeping gates (watch), taking care of elders and children and others offered labour in cloves and coconut plantations.


      • (b) In Egypt; where by slaves were taken from western Sudan and forest areas to perform various activities during Pharaoh’s regime (Period)(rule), these activities were such as constructing canals, making calendar, building tombs, performing various domestic activities.


    (c)  Maghreb societies (Morocco,Tunisia and Algeria); slaves were taken from various parts of Western Africa And Northern East Africa to perform various activities in Maghreb societies, for example they were taken to offer their labour in Agriculture like palm dates and domestic activities.

    2.Slavery co-existed together with feudalism in many parts of Africa. In Africa slave mode of production was not noted as the mode of production simply because the only mode of production in those areas was feudalism for example in Zanzibar the mode of production was feudalism however slavery also existed there.

    3.In Pre -colonial African societies there was no slave masters or class of slave masters which showed clearly that the mode of production existed in pre -colonial African societies was not slavery and rather it was feudalism.

    4.The level of development of productive forces used during the transition from primitive to feudalism showed that the slavery (Slave mode of production) did not exist in Africa for example some societies which were in transition to feudalism decided to use hoe to cultivate on the land which showed as the mode of production existed was feudalism based on land ownership.


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