Properties of Enzymes / Enzymes are complex protein molecules produced by living cells and function as biocatalysts. The enzyme works in accelerating the reaction by decreasing the activation anergy (EA) so as to make the reaction can take place in normal temperature or condition. Molecules whose first form is known by the name of the substrate will be optimized its change into a simpler molecule of products ready to be absorbed by the body.
In the process of biochemical reaction process, enzyme able to accelerate metabolism trajectory. It works by reacting together with molecules on the substrate.
The enzyme specificity is very high against the substrate. The substrate is a reactant treated in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Enzymes have properties typical of a particular substrate, these peculiarities that characterize an enzyme. The typical properties possessed of an enzyme include:
1. As a catalyst; The first enzyme trait is that it acts as a catalyst. Enzyme is a catalyst that can change the rate of reaction without participating react. Without the presence of enzymes, a reaction is very difficult to occur, whereas in the presence of enzymes the reaction speed can be increased from 107 to 1013 times.
2. Enzymes work specifically and selectively; Enzymes work specifically, meaning certain enzymes can only make changes to certain substances as well. In other words, the enzyme can only affect one reaction and can not affect other reactions that are not its field. One particular enzyme for one substrate, eg catalase enzyme can only hydrolyze H2O2 to H2O and O2.
3. Enzymes are back and forth; The properties of the next enzyme are working back and forth as they may react without affecting the final product and will re-form on the reaction product as an enzyme. When reacting, the chemical structure of the enzyme changes, but at the end of the reaction the chemical structure of the enzyme will reshape as before.
For example lipase enzymes can convert fat into fatty acids and glycerol. In contrast, lipase is also able to unite glycerol and fatty acids into fat. Enzymes not only elaborate complex molecules, but can also form complex molecules from their constituent molecules (alternating reactions).
4. Enzymes are protein in nature; Enzymes have most of the properties of proteins that are affected by temperature and pH. At low temperatures enzyme proteins will experience coagulation and at high temperatures will experience denaturation.
5. Enzymes are thermolabile; Activity of the enzyme is affected by temperature. If the temperature is low, enzyme work will be slow. The higher the temperature of the enzyme-induced chemical reaction the faster, but if the temperature is too high, the enzyme will be denatured.
6. Only required in small quantities: Since the enzyme acts as a catalyst, but does not react, the amount used as the catalyst does not need much. One enzyme molecule can work many times, as long as the molecule is not damaged.
7. Colloid: Because enzymes are composed of protein components, the properties of enzymes are classified as colloids. Enzyme has a very large inter-particle surface so that the field of activity is also large.
8. Enzyme capable of lowering the activation energy: A chemical reaction can occur if the involved molecule has enough internal energy to bring it to the top of the energy hill to a reactive form called a transition stage. The activation energy of a reaction is the amount of energy in calories required to carry all molecules at 1 mol of the compound at a certain temperature to the transition level at the top of the energy limit. If a chemical reaction is added to the catalyst-ie an enzyme, the activation energy can be lowered and the reaction will run more rapidly.