1. Nature of Underlying Rock: Abrasion is more effective on soft rocks than hard rocks.Well jointed and faulted rocks are more eroded than those which are not because cracks and joints enable water to enter rocks and freeze which facilitates plucking.
2. Gradient of Slope: Glacier on steep slopes moves faster and has greater kinetic energy to erode than slow moving glacier
3. Thickness of Ice; Thick ice is heavier and exerts greater pressure on rock debris making them to abrade the underlying rock more effectively.
4. Availability of Debris; The more the rock debris the more effective abrasion will be since it acts as abrasive tools. Too heavy debris makes erosion impossible since ice is not able to transport it but glides over it without acting on the rock below.