geographyNo Comments

1. Some countries are landlocked i.e. located far inland away from oceans e.g. Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, etc. The solution is to develop good relations among the nations in the continent so that countries which have access to the sea permit their landlocked neighbours to have direct access to the sea routes.

2. Regions having rugged relief due to presence of features like mountains e.g. mountains Kenya and Kilimanjaro which makes construction of roads and railways difficult and expensive.Presence of rapids and waterfalls which causes swift movement of water makes development of river transport difficult.

The solution is constructing passes and tunnels through ridges and slopes and building of bridges across rivers and valleys to allow construction of roads and railways.

3. Shortage of navigable rivers because rivers have navigable stretches, presence of obstacles and fluctuations of water volumes, narrowness and shallowness all of which makes navigation difficult.

Solution is widening and deepening of river channels through dredging and construction of dams across rivers to improve navigation.

4. Vandalism of communication facilities such as telephones and their cables which hinders communication.

The solution would be prosecution of people caught in possession of communication materials.

5. Lack of adequate capital for establishment and maintenance of transport and communication infrastructure e.g.vehicles, locomotives, aircraft, satellites, computers, etc.

The solution is joint partnership between African countries with donors in order to finance establishment of communication infrastructure and also.

6. Political instability in countries such as Somalia which have affected transport and communication.

The solution would be to set peace mission in the affected countries in order to restore stability.

7. Communication experiences language barriers due to many ethnic groups with majority who only communicates through vernacular making international communication difficult.

Solution is adoption of major international languages like French and English to help Africa engage in international communication.

8. High cost of travelling due to high cost of fuel causing the low and middle class persons to travel less which reduces profits realised in the transport sector.

The solution is management and conservation of energy to save on the available resources and alternative sources of energy.

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