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In African countries provision of clean and safe piped water during colonialism was mainly available in urban centers particularly in the European neighborhoods, African residential areas lacked clean water supply especially in rural areas where people continued to trot for many kilometers in search of water for human activities and for their livestock.

Soon after independence most African countries inherited colonial system of water provision that was very inadequate, disorganized and imbalanced in nature this was due to absence of government policies focusing on national water provision. Some of the weakness in provision of water services in Africa after independence includes:-

1.Limited access of water supply, only few people accessed clean water and good sanitation in thewhole country. For example in Ghana only 32% of the population had access to clean water and good sanitation by 2005.

2.Existence of natural hazards, like droughts even when there is plenty of water that could betapped for irrigation many farmers suffered from drought. Drought has led to the shrinking ofwater resources like dams and rivers.

3.Lack of skilled personnel who could repair and install facilities to supply water to residents.

4.Lack of financial resources as a result most government do not prioritize provision of good sanitation following this many people loose lives due to water transmitted epidemics includingcholera typhoid and dysentery.

5.High water charges, water firms charge high tariffs for provision of water as a result poor facedlimitations from accessing clean and safe water.

6.Corruption and embezzlement of some water companies workers whereby they engaging incorruption and embezzling funds meant for water provision. For example this has been a bigchallenge for the city council of Nairobi since independence.

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