At the period of industrial capitalism there were also changes in the methods of production of commodities that the world was demanding in increasing quantities.
The new methods of production involved the invention of machinery and the investment of huge capital. Industrial capitalism began in England by the end of eighteenth century; other countries such as French, Italy, German and Belgium were growing into industrial nations. The reasons which increase the demands of industrial development in 19th century include:-
1. Production: European capitalist nations increased the demand for industrial development as a result of competition in industrial production. During the period before the nineteenth century Britain dominated the industrial production and was the leading major industrial nation in the world.
2. Demands for raw materials: The highly demanded raw materials were cotton, oil, sugar cane, ivory, rubber and iron ore. Most of these raw materials could not be found in Europe in large quantities. In fact, those tropical crops could not grow in Europe. Following this Europe decided to produce such raw materials in Africa, India, New Zealand, Australia and China. In those areas raw materials were produced in large quantity than in Britain and other nations in Europe.
In Africa sugar cane plantation were established by the French in the Reunion and Mauritius Islands. The French depended on slave labour in those plantation the main sources of slaves was east Africa and some parts of southern Africa such as Mozambique.
3. The rise of other industrial nations: In the 1870s other European countries were industrialised this resulted in increased demand of raw materials. Therefore, it was difficult for one European country to obtain raw materials from other European countries.
It was also more difficult for one European country to export her manufactured goods to another European country. Each country was struggling to protect its domestic market industries and controlling its sources of raw materials.
4. American independence: Resulted in the development of the industrial sector. By the beginning of the 1870s, Europe could not easily enter U.S.A since it had introduced protective tariffs to keep out foreign manufactured goods and protect its industries. By the 1860s, markets for manufactured goods and sources of raw materials in Europe had greatly declined.
5. Accumulation of wealth: In order to ensure this they decided to invest the wealth that was being obtained in industries into other areas outside Europe.
6. Overpopulation and unemployment:The problem of overpopulation and unemploymentwas also rising in European countries. Therefore, the solution to those problems was sought outside Europe
7. The need for assurance of genuine and reliable markets and control of sources of raw materials: Europeemployed and sent agents to various important regions of Africa. These industrial capitalism agents prepared Africans for colonisation in future years. Therefore, in the early nineteenth century European activities in Africa were led by agents of industrial capitalism known as agents of colonisation.