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Answer.

At the period of industrial capitalism there were also changes in the methods of production of commodities that the world was demanding in increasing quantities. The new methods of production involved the invention of machinery and the investment of huge capital.

Industrial capitalism began in England by the end of eighteenth century; other countries such as French, Italy, German and Belgium were growing into industrial nations. This necessitated the high demand of industrial capitalism to advance several demands as explained below:

1. The need for raw materials: This was caused by increasing production due to expansion of industries which needed large quantities of raw materials supply. These materials included cotton, coffee, tea, iron ore, palm oil, sisal, sugar cane, tobacco and rubber.

The available raw materials could not meet the demand. At the same time they could not be produced in Europe at large quantities. This resulted into the search and control of the sources of raw materials.

2. The need for markets: Due to the investment of capital in production, industrial goods flooded the European markets. Overproduction and under consumption became a critical problem among the industrial capitalists hence they were forced to look for markets outside Europe

3. Areas for investment: Due to unreliable markets and high concentration of capital in Europe, profit marginalization occurred. As a solution new areas for investment were needed among other areas, Africa provided the best areas for investment of such capital
In Africa the tropical crops could do better compared to other countries it was also a good source for non agricultural raw materials such as minerals and forest products.

4. Need for cheap labour: Due to labour consciousness caused by working class in Europe and Britain in particular, the need to search for cheap labour become important. This was a measure taken to compete in production for profit maximisation.

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