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Abiotic factors these are non living components of the environment. They can be climatic, aquatic, soil or geographical;-

1. Temperature: is the degree of heat in a place. Organism adapt to the temperature in their habitant in various way. Fore examples some plant shed their leaves or roll them when it is very hot so as to avoid excessive lose of water. Animal in very cold place have extra fat for insulation

2. Light: is mostly obtained from the sun. It affects for example germination, opening of stomata and flowering in plant. Also light energy is important during photosynthesis

3. Wind: is moving air. It increases the rate of water evaporation from water bodies as well as from living organisms. Wind is important in formation of rain and the disposal of some plants seeds.

4. Atmospheric pressure: is the force exerted on the earth’s surface by the weight of air. There is high atmospheric pressure at low altitude, when atmospheric pressure is high, concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide are high so the rate of gaseous exchange and respiariration are also high and vice vase is true, this affect the distribution of both plant and animals.

5. Water: serve as a habitant for a large variety organism. It also save as a solvent, amedium of transportation and temperature regulation. Water is found in the form of rainfall, humidity and water bodies such as oceans, lakes, river, streams and ponds.

6. Salinity: is the quantity of salts dissolved in water. Aquatic plant have root that absorbs mineral salts and water depending on the concentration of salt in the water compared to the concentration of salt in the plants cells. Some aquatic organisms are adapted to living in freshwater habitants while others live in saltwater habitants.

7. Wave action: causes movement of water in ocean and sea. It is especially important for organisms that live in the intertidal zone.  These organisms are covered by water during high tide and exposed to air during low tide. Such organism includes shrimps, different type of seaweeds, crabs and clams.

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