The scramble for Africa was a competition among European powers to obtaining colonies. Scramble for Africa started more in 1870s while involving different European countries. “Scramble” for and partition of Africa was a result of several factors, some of which included:
1. National balance of power while other European countries demanded colonies to be equal or similar to Great Britain.
2. Prestige (pride) of the nations: The number of colonies controlled by the colonial master/nation was the measure of wealth of a nation.
3. Industrial Revolution led to the demand of raw materials from Africa hence competition among the European nations to obtain many colonies as possible in Africa.
4. Industrial revolution led to overproduction in Europe hence creating a need to find external markets (outside Europe) thus resulting in competition.
5. Change of monopoly system: In Europe few capitalists started to own land while others failed (those who failed to obtain land in Europe they started to find in Africa hence competition).
6. Conflicts between capitalists and labourers in Europe while labourers demanded bigger salaries capitalists started to look for cheaper labour thus started economic activities in Africa.