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The Ngoni were Bantu-Nguni speaking people of Northern Zululand in South East Africa. They were originally Ndwandwe people under Zwides leadership. But when Shaka defeated Zwide, one part of his group, the Ngoni moved to East Africa under Zwangendaba. The following are negative effects arise by Ngoni invasion in East Africa;-

1.They caused wide spread loss of lives leading to depopulation in some areas where they got warriors this was especially in southern Tanzania. This was due to the killing of people in the expansionist wars, e.g., the Mariti remnants of Rugarugas killed so many people.

2. They introduced military organization and tactics to such an extent that the Ngoni lost their superiority e.g. Holoholo were able to defeat the Tuta Ngoni when they re- attacked them.

3. Their movement led to widespread devastation, depopulation and displacement of people.

4. They destroyed the economy of the people of southern Tanzania when they grabbed their cattle. (The Ngoni were cattle plunderers). The Ngoni invasion led to poverty, i.e., it led to the creation of a class of poor people as their property continued to be destroyed and persistently looted during the wars.

5. The Ngoni led to formation of refugees who lived by plundering and killing i.e. the Mariti and Rugaruga who were later used by ambitious men like Mirambo, Nyunguyamawe to make their empires.

6.  The Tuta Ngoni, on their movement northwards, disrupted the trade particularly between Tabora and Ujiji.

6. There was loss of peoples’ language, culture and customs (Detribalisation of people). i.e., The raids caused many people to become homeless and tribe less. This led to people losing their identity. In addition, such groups became terrorists who lived by war, plunder, and hunting for ivory. They included the “ Ruga-ruga” who began hiring their services as mercenaries to any chief willing to pay them.

7.  Ngoni disturbance disrupted normal cultivation leading to famine. There was widespread famine due to the scotched-earth policy of fighting. This included destroying crops and houses by burning. Under such circumstances, crops could neither be planted nor harvested, and people were forced to abandon farming.

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