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A double bond between carbon-carbon atoms (C=C) consists of a sp2-sp2 s bond and a p bond. These bonds are formed between unhybridized ‘2p’ orbitals of each C atom at right angle to the plane of sigma bond. Since the p bond prevents the free rotation about the carbon-carbon axis, a di-substituted alkene can exist in two forms: cis-isomer and trans-isomer.

In cis-isomer, both the like groups are on the same side of the plane whereas in trans-isomer these groups are on the opposite side of the plane.

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