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Answer.

Mercantilism refers to large scale trade or commercial trade conducted through overseas. The first stage of capitalism that appeared during 15th Century where by trade and commerce was conducted by European countries with the continent of Africa, Asia and America through overseas trade and also silver (precious metal) were used as the coin. The following are the conditions which forced merchants to cupture slaves from Africa to America and Carribeans:-

1. Merchantalism; This was an economic system which involved in conducting trade overseas searching for gold and silver. Merchantalism led to the rise of Trans-Atlantic slave trade which was a trading activity which involved Africa, America and Europe. During this trade millions of Africans were shipped to America to provide cheap labour in mines and plantations.

2. Booming capitalist agriculture; During merchantalism European capitalist established different plantations of coffee, tea, sugar cane, cotton and tobacco which called for massive supply of cheap labours, thus the supply of white labour was getting difficult compared to the expanding needs of the plantations, therefore this called for importation of slaves from Africa.

3. Industrial revolution in Europe; Due to the industrial revolution, there was need to expand home markets thus the merchants and the ruling class in Europe were afraid of under population, this prompted the campaign against the use of white labourers. The crisis called for massive importation of slaves from Africa to provide cheap labour in mines and plantations.

4. Africans slaves were cheap; Its on record that money paid on white labour for ten years could procure on African slaves for life. In addition a white worker was expected to acquire land at the end of the contract while on African slaves was prevented by law from owning land. These conditions necessitated the use of African origin in the new world.

5. Discovery of maritime technology; This acted as a pushing factor for Africans to be taken as slaves. Maritime technology eased transportation and guided the merchants to locate Africa. Thus be in position to transport people of African origin to the new world.

6. Inability of the indigenous people; Initially the Europeans were using Native Americans, Red Indians to provide cheap labour power on the plantations and mining centers but later the red Indians died in huge numbers due to plague. This called for importation of African slaves which contributed to the existence of people of African origin in the new world.

7. Discovery of the new world; The Discovery of the new world by Christopher Columbus in 1492 contributed to the existence of people of African origin in the new world. The discovery led to the establishment of plantations and mining centers that demanded for cheap labours which called for importation of African slaves.

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