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Mozambique the nationalist movements championing the grievances of both the workers and peasants emerged in the 1960. Due to the suppression of nationalist movements within Mozambique, nationalist movements were organized from outside by Mozambicans in exile.

The early political movements in Angola developed mainly along ethnic lines. The initial political parties expressed cultural activities like praising African culture. In December 1956, the movement for peoples liberation of Angola (MPLA) advocated for equal rights of the all the colonized people irrespective of their color, creed or tribe.

In 1962, the Front for National liberation of Angola (FNLA) was formed. By this time, there were two major liberation movements i.e. the MPLA and FNLA. The Reasons for armed struggle in Angola and Mozambique:-

(1) Banning of nationalist movements; Portugal banned all nationalist movements in these colonies because she was not ready to grant independence. The nationalist movements in Mozambique were operating from outside, this complicated the struggle for independence thus the Africans had to resort to the use of armed struggle.

(2) The perception of portages; Portugal like France always argued that she had no colonies in Africa, but overseas provinces that were part of Portugal. Portugal claimed that these territories had no rights for independence. This position forced the Africans to use armed struggle to acquire independence.

(3) Portugal was poor; Portugal was a very poor therefore she depended heavily on her colonies for wealth, due to this predicament Portugal could not grant independence to Angola and Mozambique , forcing the Africans to use armed struggle.

(4) Richness of the colonies; A colony such as Angola was so rich in terms of raw material particularly all thus the Portuguese were not ready to grant it independence, hence the only solution left was to use armed struggle.

(5) Portugal was a fascist state; Portugal was a fascist state i.e. was a country that did not believed in democracy to make matters worse, she believed in the everlasting civilizing mission in Africa hence she could not grant independence to Angola and Mozambique when the civilizing mission was incomplete. This altitude compelled the Africans to use armed struggle to regain their independence.

(6) Many Portuguese were illiterate; Many Portuguese were illiterate thus ignorant about the outside world especially of the new form of imperialism. Portugal believed that granting independence to her colonies meant the end of exploitation; hence it became reluctant to grant independence to its colonies.

N.B: None the less, Angola and Mozambique were able to acquire independence after a prolonged armed struggle.

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