Independence refers to the total liberation of man from poverty, ignorance, disease, exploitation and oppression. Such liberation can be achieved if African political systems can enable their people to plan their economic development and attain prosperity.
Since independence Tanzania has tried different ways to achieve development, but in the whole, the country is still finding it very difficult to achieve real growth and development. The following are the challenges of Tanzania’s economic development;-
(a) Inadequate capital; The absence of adequate capital is one of the crucial factors that have hindered development in the region. African countries rely on loans given by the developed countries, but these loans have conditions attached and came in small trickles thus not able to support development in Africa.
(b) Poor transport system; Existence of poor transport systems which were mainly concentrated in productive areas led Tanzania to fail to achieve the goals of multiparty.
(c) Illiteracy; High levels of illiteracy are one of the factors that have contributed significantly to under development of Tanzania. The colonial education system provided education to a few people along racial and religious lines thus leaving the majority of the people illiterate. Low levels of literacy leads to limited number of skilled people in Tanzania which does not promote development.
(d) Corruption/ embezzlement of the government funds; Corruption is one of the major factors that have hindered real development in Tanzania. Government officials especially the presidents have misused public funds. Many governments in Africa, Tanzania inclusively have run bankrupt because of corruption and mismanagement.
(e) Introduction of socialist ideology; At the time of independence, Tanzania chooses socialism and self reliance. The government introduced codes that were similar or common in the socialist world including one party system and common ownership of property. This practice cut off Tanzania from the western world and the situation was worsening by the collapse of Soviet Union.
(f) Border conflicts; Ever since independence, there have been several conflicts, these conflicts rose from the non important issues. But they have consumed a lot of money and resources. The examples of the border wars are those between Tanzania and Uganda (1978 1979) and Tanzania and Malawi (1972).
(g) Massive unemployment; Massive unemployment is a situation thrown in the countries attempt to realize economic development. Many students who complete universities and colleges do not get employment due to few job opportunities to make matters worse; most of those who find higher education are job seekers and not job creators. Massive unemployment forces people to live the country hence brain drain.
(h) Health; The health system in the country is still inadequate to sustain or guarantee all health ends. The doctors, hospitals, dispensaries and health centers are not enough especially in rural and some urban areas. Poor health services forces people to search for services outside the country which are usually expensive thus depleting the meager resources.
(i) Neocolonialism; Neo colonialism is one of the major problems that hinder development in the country. Tanzania depends on loans and grants from the developed countries but these facilities have strings attached which are always to the advantage of the developed countries.