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Answer.

The following are the some of the measures that can be taken to control erosion:

1.Afforestation and Reforestation:Afforestation is the planting of trees where no forest has been known to exist.Reforestation is the planting of trees on land that previously had a forest.

2. Control of bush fires:When open grassland are burnt the soil is directly exposed to agents of erosion.

3. Controlled open grazing:Overgrazing which is another cause of soil erosion should be avoided by mulching the number of livestock kept on any piece of land.

4. Erecting brushwood barriers:On land where gullies have developed, barriers of brushwood or even stone walls can be constructed across the gullies to help trap the soil.

5. Construction of cut-off drains:Cutoff drains are open trenches which are dug across the slope and soil is heaped on their down – slope sides to form a kind of ridges. These drains prevent large amount of water that might have resulted in formation of rill, gully and sheet erosion from down the slope.

6. Constructing of dams and weirs:These are structure that are built across river’s valley for the purpose of controlling a river flow or for retaining water in a large reservoir within the valley. They may be made of earth’s (earth dam) and stone (rock fill dam).

7. Use of artificial waterways:An artificial waterway is a small channel that is constructed down a slope and into which surface run-off collects. Normally water from cut-off drains as well as from terraces should be discharged into rivers or into non-erodible areas such as stony grounds.

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