Surveying is the science of measuring and record distances, angles and heights on the Earth’s surface to obtain data from which accurate plans and maps are made. Surveying can becategorised into various types or branches depending on its purpose, function and nature. Thetypes or branches include:
1.Topographical survey:This kind of survey is carried out for the purpose of preparing topographical maps.
2. Geodetic survey:This kind of survey is carried out with the aim of knowing the Earth’s shape and size (the Earth’s configuration)
3. Cadastral survey:This kind of survey is conducted with the aim of preparing a legal document such as house plans, town or city boundaries, etc. It is mainly used for ownership purposes.
4. Engineering surveys:This kind of survey is conducted for the building and construction layout of railways, bridges and roads.
5. Geological survey:This kind of survey is conducted with the aim of knowing the distribution of rocks and minerals under the Earth’s surface.
6. Topographical surveying:This kind of survey is carried out for the purpose of preparing topographical maps. Topographical maps are those maps whose contents include both man-made features such as linear features (roads, railways, telephone lines, water systems, and electricity poles) and natural features such as rivers, oceans, mountains, etc.