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Soil can be defined as the uppermost surface layer of loose or unconsolidated material which overlies the crystal rocks and on which plants grow. The following is importance of soil formation:

1.Medium for plant growth.Soil is where most plants grow. Soil provides anchorage for the plants as well as protection of roots from damage.It is where or a medium through which water, air and nutrients are made available to plants. The well-aerated soil facilitates the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil by plants.

2.Soil support animal life.As soil support plant life it also support animal life because plants are the source of foods to animals and this is most for herbivores. Also some animals eat soil as food in form of salt licks for example pregnant women who lack some minerals in their bodies.

3.Soil provide habitat for living organisms.In the soil there are some animals living there example burrowing animals like rodents, earthworms and termites

4.Provide sites for agricultural activities.The fertile soil promotes agriculture activities, both animal husbandry and crop cultivation. This is because soil supports the growth of pasture for animals.

5.Provide settlement.Soil influences distribution of settlement for example the areas with good fertile soil are densely populated compared to the areas with poor soil.

6.Soil provide building materialsSoil is used in making bricks, tiles and white wash. All these materials are used in building houses, bridges etc. Also soil is used directly in road construction

7.Source of minerals;There are some minerals found in soil that can be extracted for commercial purposes. Also it is used to manufacture fertilizers as it contain minerals for example the fertilizers that contain phosphate e.g. In Minjingu (Manyara) region.

8.It provides raw materials for pottery and ceramics.Soil is used in making pots and these help to provide income to those who engage in this activity.

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