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Answer.

This was advocated by Karl Max (1818 1883) and his friend Fredrick Angles who was born in (1820 1895) who was aimed at destructing capitalism and establishing a dictatorship state of workers (proletarians) hence scientific socialism was the one which put socialism into practicein the world as the case study was in Russia after the Russian revolution of Oct. 1917.

Scientific socialism contained scientific principles of building socialism and philosophical basisof the class struggle and revolution e.g. act (means). These founders of scientific socialism believed that socialism can be attained through class struggle and revolutionary means so there should be the struggle between the workers and the capitalist in which workers should struggle to take control of the state and the major means of production while the capitalist wanted to remain dominant. The major factors of origin scientific socialism includes:-

1. Contribution of Germany Ideology of dialectics: This Ideology was put forward philosopher known as Michael Hegel whereby Hegel with his Ideology of dialect insisted on changes in the society is inevitable and always this changes arise out of contradictions, Hegel used three concepts to verify the theory of dialects which are thesis Antithesis thesis from the German Ideology Max borrowed. The concept of dialects – and used them to develop the concept of Historical and direction materialism which is called correct outlook of the world, the concept of historical materialism stated that matter is in a constant motion or change and people should understand the laws governing nature. Max Later concluded that the change from capitalism to socialism was inevitable even by revolution because the society as a matter keeps on a constant change.

2. Contribution of French revolution of 1789 in building socialism: The French revolution which advocated for equality force for the rise of scientific socialism, this was because after French had made a revolution it managed to establish French socialism which stay for start time of only 72 days but it collapsed so Karl max fear its weaknesses involved in French socialism that the French socialism after the revolution of 1789 failed because it was led by idealistic way of thinking and not scientific approach. From this weakness Max disposed a scientific theory of building socialism which insisted workers to struggle not make revolution/ in order to remove the capitalist more scientifically and not by emotion or immorality.

3. Contribution of Utopian socialism: This intended to build socialism through moral approach / discussion / persuasion to the capitalist. Karl Max criticized their wrong way/ approach that it was practically impossible to ask the exploiters to stop exploitation and oppression since they were the one who benefited of the capitalist system and usually capitalism operated through exploitation from this weakness Karl Max and Engels depend the method of class struggle and revolutionary action as the scientific way of building socialism in the world.

4. The contribution of the English political economist : The contribution of the English political economic from the English political economist Karl Max criticized them because of their weakness and because they were emphasizing capitalism in the society, there were like Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Robert Malthus because their theory justified capitalist exploitation in the society.

  •  Adam Smith: In his book of the wealth of the nations published in 1776 said that all business and economic activities are regulated by the natural Laws which are the Law of supply and demand & the Law of competition that is in any business price will be fixed by the supply and demand; so Smith argued that every man should be free to do what he thought to be the best for himself e.g. to involve in business or to involve in capitalism.
  • Robert Malthus: He was an Anglican clergyman who become a professor of economics in his book titled as An essay on the principle of population published in 1798 he wrote that the greatest obstacle to human progress was the increase of population, therefore he argued that population was increasing geometrically while production and food supply was increasing arithmetically.Then he comes out with the possible solutions to the problems.

(i) He advocated wars, famine and hunger, diseases especially epidemic diseases etc. all these aimed to reduce population size.

  • David Ricardo: He advocated the theory of comparative advantages where in his book titled as principle of political economy and taxation of 1870 he recommended that each region as to dwell/continue on producing what is suitable for each region i.e. Agrarian societies should remain agrarian and industrial societies should remain industrial. Therefore Karl Max come out with the theory of scientific which aspired for building a socialist state under exploitation of man by man, oppression, and segregation of people in a society should not exist.

5. The contribution of Karl max and Fredrick Engels: These thinkers were the initiatives of scientific socialism who advocated their time to write and expand the idea of building socialism through the principle of scientific socialism hence the ideas of Max and Engels were taken and put into practice by people who aimed and volunteered to build socialism in the world history e.g. Lenin, who built socialism in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution of Oct. 1917.

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