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Answer.

The national of European balance power refers to a policy whereby European powers used military alliances as the determining factor in maintaining stability in Europe. The following are the factors that led to the use of this policy;-

(a) Rise of European nationalism; During this period, colonies were seen as a sign of prestige. They became a test and proof of a nations superiority. This belief was bound to force the European powers to look for colonies in Europe, thus disturbing the balance of power.

(b) Development of monopoly capitalism; The development of capitalism to the monopoly stage had various demands in Europe. Due to monopoly capitalism, there was need for raw materials, markets and cheap labour which could only be satisfied through acquiring colonies. To prevent European countries from searching for colonies in Europe, the European powers adopted the notion of European balance of power so as to maintain stability.

(c) Emergence of Germany and Italy; After Germany and Italy achieved their unification, they joined the race for colonies to meet the demands of monopoly capitalism. To maintain stability in Europe, The European powers decided to adopt a notion of European balance of power.

Due to monopoly capitalism, there was a need for markets, raw materials and investment areas. Their needs could only be achieved by acquiring colonies but the European countries were not supposed to look for colonies inside Europe, thus an outlet had to be created and this led to the scramble for and partition of Africa.

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