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Answer.

(a) Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to specialization where by a group of people emerged and specialized in different economic activities for example in Africa they emerged a group of specialized in agriculture, fishing, iron melting, pastoralism and trade as well as in Europe there was emerged of groups of people who specialized in different economic activities such as traders (merchant kings), people who specialized in farming etc.

(b) Both trade found in Africa and Europe during the 15 th Century led to the development of science and technology in African and European societies. For Example It led to the development of ship building and, marine technology and compass bearing where by traders used advanced to travel in other parts of the world to look for raw materials, market, cheap labour etc. while in Africa there was development of different science and technologies which enabled traders to travel from one areas to another. For Example In West Africa traders across Trans-Saharan desert used camels from (West Africa) to (North Africa) used horse as means of transport.

(c) Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to emergence of state (state formation). for example in Africa Ghana, Songhai, Mali, Oyo, Benin, Mwanamutapa empire, Mirambo empire as well as in Europe there was emergence of states especially in Britain and later on in France due to the trade.
In Addition to that, the trade found in both Africa and Europe led to emergence of trading centers and growth of towns which later led to urbanization in both Africa and Europe. Example in Dodoma, Walata, Gao, Jere, but we also had some towns like Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Kilwa, Pete, Lamu etc. as well as in Europe there ware towns due to trade such as Liverpool, Yorkshire, Manchester, Venice, etc.

(d) Both trades in Africa and Europe lead to emergence of goods and strong leaders who later controlled the state for example in Africa Mansa Kankan Musa (Mali), Askia Mohamed (Songhai), and Mwenemutapa (Mwenemutapa Empire).

(e) Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to emergence of strong army which was well disciplined to protect state and its routes for example in Britain there was emergence of navy army.

(f) Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to emergence of people who later became rich because of being involving in the system of exchange in the societies.

For Example Kings and individual traders who involved were involved in the trade became rich. For Example in Africa Mansa Musa, Askia, Samouri Toure, Mirambo, Mwenemutapa and In Europe Kings also became rich because they got much profit from trade.

(g) Both trades found in Africa and Europe led emergence of strong faith because the trade lead to unity among the people in the society. For example the Trans-Saharan trade in Africa led to emergence of Islamic faith West and North Africa while in some East African societies there was emergence of Christianity due long distance trade (LTD) as well as in Europe there were emergence of Christianity due to trade conducted between European societies.

(h) Trades especially in Europe during 15 th C lead to the growth of industries where by different industries were built using the wealth accumulated from trade. For Example Textile industries, Agricultural equipment industries.etc

(i) Trade especially in Europe led to establishment of financial institutions like banks such as Barclays, House Lord in Britain after the merchant Kings and other. Traders had accumulated profit from the trade conducted between European nations and other continents of the world.

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