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Answer.

The 1848 has been regarded as the year of revolution in Europe. The revolutions broke out mainly in France and the Austrian empire. There were mainly directed against the spirit of the Vienna arrangement of 1815. In France, the 1848 revolutions contributed to the downfall of Louis Philippe and his Orleans monarchy, while in Austria Empire the 1848 revolutions lead to the downfall of Metternich. The following are the roles of the 1848 revolution in the rise of ;

(a) Establishments of constitutions: The revolutions took place in 1848 contributed to the rise of democracy by facilitating the establishment of constitutions. During the 1848 revolutions, people demanded for political reforms of the existing political systems. They advocated for parliamentary democracy and constitutional governments which by then were lacking. In France, the Orleans monarchy was removed from power and constitutional government was established.

(b) Demise of feudalism; The 1848 revolutions contributed to the destruction of feudalism and serfdom in Europe which contributed to the rise of democracy. The absolute monarchies were part and parcel of feudalism and serfdom thus creating a good atmosphere for the rise of democracy.

(c) Rise of national consciousness; 1848 revolutions played a crucial role in the rise of national consciousness (feeling) in Europe which contributed to the rise of democracy. In German and Italian states, there was a strong national feeling that aimed at achieving national unity and national political independence.

(d) Overthrow of the papacy regimes; The 1848 revolutions played a great role in the overthrow of the papacy regimes in Italy consequently contributing to the rise of democracy in Europe. Republican such as Mazzini and Garibaldi contributed significantly to the unification of Italy which laid a foundation for the establishment of democracy.

(e) Emergency of the capitalist class; The 1848 revolutions contributed to the rise of democracy in Europe by destroying feudalism and paving way for the rise of the merchant class which was very fundamental in the rise of capitalism and democracy in Europe.

Conclusion

Although the 1848 revolutions generally failed, they provided important lessons for future nationalists and liberal leaders. They lead the ground for future dynamic and strong leadership that played a great role in the Italian and German unification. In case of Italy, they lead to the rise of count Camilla Carvour and victor Emmanuel II. In case of Germany, there was the rise of Otto Von Bismarck.

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