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Answer.

Colonial agriculture was the main sector of the colonial economy so as to produce cash crops that were needed as raw materials by the capitalists industries. Emphasis was laid on the production of cash crops and not food crops. The changes in colonial agriculture included the following:-

(i) Establishment of progressive master farmers; The colonial state introduced progressive farmers under peasant agriculture; these farmers are given modern farming tools, loans and could hire labor. The main goal of the colonial state was to increase the production of cash crops.

(ii) Introduction of agricultural development schemes and plans; This is where there was introduction of scientific methods of agriculture; these included terracing schemes in the hilly areas to avoid soil erosion, restocking so as to increase animal husbandry and modernization and a forestation to keep soil fertility and prevent soil erosion.

(iii) Introduction of agricultural experiments in the colonies; The goal of the agricultural experiments was to introduce new cash crops for example there was introduction of groundnuts to solve the problem of edible oil in Europe, palm oil was introduced in Kongwa, Nachingwea and Urambo.

(iv) Setup of settlement schemes; This is where the colonial state was shifting farmers to fertile places so as to avoid more room for cash crop production. All the fertile land in pre–colonial Africa was supposed to be subjected to cash crop production.

(v) Development of state farms; The colonial state introduced state farms so as to reduce its dependence on subsidies from the metro-pole. These farms were supposed to generate revenue that was needed to run the colonial administration. State farms were very common in French colonies in West Africa.

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