This involved production by foreigners.These foreigners usual presented the interests of the metropole (i.e. their main interest were mining and agriculture in the colonized countries). The promotion of agricultural production was to go hand in hand with white settlements in Africa, especially in those areas that were fertile.
Settlers settled in big numbers in central Africa (Malaysia, Zambia, Zimbabwe), South Africa, parts of French equatorial Africa, French West Africa, and in East Africa (Kenya). The settler economy characterized by the following;
(i) Land alienation with differently issue land ordinaries, in 1900 the land occupation ordinance was enacted in Zambia. The ordinance required that Europeans who had been allocated land must occupy and use that land or otherwise they would pay taxes for leaving such land redundant.
In Kenya in 1597, the land regulation office set as vacant land for European settlements, in 1902, the owner land ordinance allowed the commissioner to sell or give crown land to the Europeans, and large scale land alienation in Kikuyu began.
(ii) Forced labour: The French, German land Portuguese follow a similar policy of forced labour and unpaid labour. Forced labour was required to reduce costs that were needed in public services. In Zimbabwe in 1897, the Nature egulation Act was passed, forcing African chiefs to produced labourers at law coast.
(iii) Taxation: the hut tax was introduced in Malawi in early 1890 in Zimbabwe in 1898, and in Zambia in 1900. In Kenya the Hut Tax was introduced in 1980, and poll tax in 1910. The intention of the tax was to cover administrative expansion ways by which Africans would be forced to work in European farms and mines in order to raise money to pay their taxes.
(iv)Migrant labour were transported from far away places to work in settler plantations.
(v) The development of infrastructures to serve the settlers.