Soil formation is sometimes called Pedogenesis The formation of soil is mainly initiated by weathering process. There are several factors which influence soil formation these are as follows:-
(a) Parent Rock Material: This is one of the Achief factors of soil formation. It determines soil type, color, depth, rate of soil formation, structure, texture, porosity and soil fertility. Parent rock influence soil maturity, therefore hard rocks take a long time to mature while soft rocks take a short time to mature. Shallow and poorly productive
(b) Climate: The most variable elements under climate are temperature, precipitation (rainfall) and wind Temperature affects decomposition of organic matter hence it influences the development of soil profile Rainfall and wind encourage the formation of soil due to their role in the erosion process On the other hand rainfall adds moisture which encourages chemical and physical weathering
(c) Living organism: Some plants have nodules with bacteria which add nitrogen into the soil hence improve aeration of soil. Microorganisms are active in the decomposition of the organic matter to form humus on the other hand barrowing of animals and plant roots facilitate the state of both physical and chemical weathering hence lead to the formation of soil easily.
(d) Relief [Topography]; The role of relief in soil formation is mostly in indirect way. Relief influences climate and vegetation. The most important aspect of topography in soil formation, steep slopes areas soils are shallow due to erosion while on a gentle slopes and low land areas soils are deep due to deposition of materials.
(e) Time: This involves the duration that has been taken in the process of soil formation. Time determines the maturity of soil, when soil formation has taken a long time, soil tends