In rural areas, family members especially girls and women spend most of their time looking for water. In Tanzania, most rural communities the task of fetching water is placed on women and girls. It is the girls who have to do this as the women are engaged in other domestic duties or family chores such as taking care of babies and cooking. The distance between the home and the water source affects the girl child in the following ways;-
(i) When the distance is long, it means that the girls have to walk the long distance to fetch the water. By walking the long distance they get tired, they may get attacked/molested along the way and in some cases, there is a little time left for activity such as learning or playing. For those who are lucky to go to school, they tend to be too tired to pay much attention in class hence, poor performance. But for those who are not lucky enough to go to school are condemned illiteracy. All of these may turn into early marriages or teenage pregnancies and some of them tend to experience psychological problems in their childhood as well as in their adulthood due to lack of time to play, robs them of a happy and balance childhood.
(ii) On the other hand, if the distance from the home to the water source is short, then the girls spend less time in fetching water and hence they have more time to play and to go to school, thus they will be able to pay attention in the class and do well in their studies.
(iii) In addition, children who are consistently exposed to hazardous, un portable water or exposed to pumps or water source that have been contaminated by water-bone bacteria, contracting diseases such as cholera and they are often affected by life threatening diarrhea from parasites in unclean water.