After World War I the world powers worked very hard to stop the occurrence of another great war. In 1920s several peace treatiaes were signed in an effort to strengthen relations among the European powers. It was however very difficult to create such relations because many European powers were dissatisfied with the conditions they found themselves in, so in the 1930, there was general aggression which worsened the relations between the powers thus culminating into the Second World War. The reasons for Second World War II as follow;-
(i) The Versailles peace treaty; The terms of the treaty blamed German for being responsible for the outbreak of World War II. The allied powers occupied most of German territories and forced her to disarm. The war reparations made German to become bankrupt leading to inflation and wide spread of unemployment. The German blamed the Versailles treaty for their troubles and Hitler wanted to reverse this situation by adopting an aggressive foreign policy.
(ii) Hitler’s ambition to restore German dominance in Europe contributed to the outbreak of World War II. He made it clear that German cannot become a world power without affecting another war. He demanded rearmament of German and set out to assert German authority over smaller and weaker states which destabilized European peace.
(iii) The rise of dictatorship. Dictatorship developed during the 1920 and 1930 which destroyed democratic rights. In Italy Mussolini founded the fascist party in 1919; he seized all political powers of the country and transformed the country into a totalitarian state. The national socialist party or the Nazi party came to power in 1933 in German with;
(a) Introduction of the cold war. The cold war was an ideological and economic struggle between two opposing blocs i.e. USA and her allies on one hand and the Soviet Union and her allies on the other hand. The cold war was accompanied by an arm race between USA and USSR
(b) Formation of the United Nations. The UN was formed in 1945 to promote peace, security and international cooperation. It was founded on a broader basis than the League of Nations, whereby membership is open to all nations irrespective of their political and ideological belief.
(c) Introduction of the marshal plan. The marshal plan was a package of loans given to European countries to reconstruct their economies after the Second World War with the introduction of the marshal plan, the USA found herself getting more involved in European affairs.
(d) Formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This was a military alliance of the USA and most states of Western Europe formed in 1949. The organization committed to USA to defend Western Europe and in return those countries would support the USA. This scheme threatened to destroy the communist Russia.
(e) Formation of the war saw Pact. The Soviet Union response to NATO was the formation of the war saw pact in 1955 which brought all the soviet satellites into a military union. From the 1950’s Europe remained a divide continent and a major theater of the cold war
(f) Formation of NAM. The Non Alignment Movement was a kind neutralism i.e. a policy of not aligning with any power block; it is therefore a free and independent policy whereby international issues are decided on merit.
(g) Loss of live. The World War II led to huge loses of lives because very many people, both soldiers and civilian were killed during the war.
(h) Massive unemployment. The war created massive unemployment. This was due to the return of the demobilized soldiers and prisoners of war who increased the demand of jobs.
(i) Change in the balance of power. The second world war changed the balance of power in the world, it destroyed the economies of power such as France and Britain and contributed to the emergence of the united states of America and the union of soviet socialist republics as the world powers.