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A budget is a set of interlinked plans that quantitatively describe an entity’s projected future operations. A budget is used as a yardstick against which to measure actual operating results, for the allocation of funding, and as a plan for future operations. The major purposes of central government budget are;-

1. Reallocation of Resources: Through the budgetary policy, Government aims to reallocate resources in accordance with the economic (profit maximization) and social (public welfare) priorities of the country. Government can influence allocation of resources through:

(i) Tax concessions or subsidies: To encourage investment, government can give tax concession, subsidies etc. to the producers. For example, Government discourages the production of harmful consumption goods (like liquor, cigarettes etc.) through heavy taxes and encourages the use of ‘Khaki products’ by providing subsidies.

(ii) Directly producing goods and services: If private sector does not take interest, government can directly undertake the production.

2. Reducing inequalities in income and wealth: Economic inequality is an inherent part of every economic system. Government aims to reduce such inequalities of income and wealth, through its budgetary policy. Government aims to influence distribution of income by imposing taxes on the rich and spending more on the welfare of the poor. It will reduce income of the rich and raise standard of living of the poor, thus reducing inequalities in the distribution of income.

3. Economic Stability: Government budget is used to prevent business fluctuations of inflation or deflation to achieve the objective of economic stability. The government aims to control the different phases of business fluctuations through its budgetary policy. Policies of surplus budget during inflation and deficit budget during deflation helps to maintain stability of prices in the economy.

4. Management of Public Enterprises: There are large numbers of public sector industries (especially natural monopolies), which are established and managed for social welfare of the public. Budget is prepared with the objective of making various provisions for managing such enterprises and providing those financial help.

5. Economic Growth: The growth rate of a country depends on rate of saving and investment. For this purpose, budgetary policy aims to mobilize sufficient resources for investment in the public sector. Therefore, the government makes various provisions in the budget to raise overall rate of savings and investments in the economy.

6. Reducing regional disparities: The government budget aims to reduce regional disparities through its taxation and expenditure policy for encouraging setting up of production units in economically backward regions.

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