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Answer.

After independence most of African state faced with different obstacles which hindering the development in their regions, these obstacles are social, political and economic and culturally problem includes;

(a) Existence of tribalism, most of African state faced with tribalism problem this is due to existence of ethicism group within the African community, tribalism has contributed to the civil wars in some countries such as Burundi, Rwanda, Sudan and Ivory Coast. These country spend more time in solving this problem instead of solving the development programs

(b) Political instability, this is the situation where by a country (Government) failed to maintain peace and security, thus resulted to the outbreak of civil wars. Political instability attributed with some factors such as lack of democracy in the country, misuse of national resources, unequal distribution of national wealth. Political instability resulted to the civil wars and loss of life of people, this problem faced most African state such as Uganda, Somalia, Sudan , Democratic republic of Congo (DRC).

(c) Boundaries conflicts, this problem faced most African state for example Uganda under Iddi Amin Dada invaded Tanganyika and occupied the Northern part of Tanganyika in Kagera this lead to Tanganyika to declared war over Uganda in 1978.

(d) Violation of human Right, the African government use power in ruling their citizens since led to the violation of human right to their citizens.

(e) Unequal distribution of national wealth, some African state failed to balance in the provisions and distribution of national wealth to the people since this led to misunderstanding to Africans.

(f) Disease problem, most African state faced with serious problem of disease which affects the Africans and led to decrease of manpower due to death of people. The serious disease affecting Africans are malaria, typhoid, tuberculosis, AIDS and Cancer.

(g) Corruption, the misuse of public resources for leader’s interest, most Africans government leaders engaged in corruption since this undermined the economic progress of the countries.

(h) Religions difference, this is the serious problem faced African state includes Nigeria and Sudan were Christians and Muslims have the differences which intensified conflicts in the country.

(i) Increase number of refugees, most African country faced with the increase in number to refugees due to the existence of civil wars, electoral dispute, conflict over natural resources such as land, water and minerals.

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