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Answer.

Distribution of mining industry regions in the world, minerals are unevenly distributed in the world. Mining activities are concentrated where minerals deposits are in, some regions are rich in mineral resources e.g. south Africa while others are poor in minerals this is due to geological factors which led to their occurrence. Methods of  extract mining on the world:-

(a) Open cast mining It is used to extract minerals which usually occur close to the earth’s surface It involves removing the top layers of the earth and other overlying materials above the mineral areas Earth moving machines and bulldozers are used. Electric shovels-to dig up minerals and load it into the lorries or trucks It is the cheapest method Example Quarrying of lime stone and corals at kunduchi in DSM and Barubuni in Kenya.

(b) Alluvial mining Takes place where minerals occur in alluvial deposits ( materials deposited by water). It involves mixing of alluvial deposits with water. Then the mixture is rotated until light particles like sand, mud and small stones are crashed off Then the mineral particles like gold, platinum and diamonds are left behind .

(c) Underground (shaft mining) It is used in mining ore that lie deep below the surface of the earth Vertical shaft is dug up to the layer containing the mineral, and then the tunnel is dug up horizontally to reach the minerals. Hence, the minerals are transported from the tunnels to the base of the shaft from where it is hoisted onto the surface.

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