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Soil is the thin upper layer of the earth’s crust which has been weathered from the parents material and decomposed animals and plants. soil support plants growth and animal life. The main components of soil are:-

(a) Organic matter This forms 5% of the total volume of soil and is made up of plant and animal remains. This forms humus as a result of decomposition of animals and plant remains.

(b) Soil air It forms 25% of the total volume. It consists of the soil atmosphere from which plants and soil organisms obtain oxygen for their metabolism and dispose of carbon dioxide and other gases.

(c) Inorganic matter This forms 45% of the total volume and is made up of minerals from the parent rock. Minerals constitute several nutrients which are needed by plants.

(d) Soil water Forms 25% of the total volume and it is one of the most important soil components. It is derived essentially from rainfall especially from infiltration and through flow.

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