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Answer.

The Mfecane refers to the wars and disturbances caused by Shaka and the rise of the Zulu state in South Africa. The Mfecane is also referred to as the time of trouble or turbulence in South Africa.The Mfecane had a tremendous impact in East and Central Africa; some of the effects had a far reaching impact to Africa.

1. Formation of states: The Mfecane led to state formation because the severity of these wars led to formation of strong armies for protection, but these armies were later used for conquest and expansion thus forming states. Examples of these states are the Shangani states in Zimbabwe.

2. Spread of Ngoni speaking people: The most permanent results of the Mfecane were the spread of the Ngoni speaking people. These people were called various names in different parts of Africa. They were called the Ngoni in Tanzania, the matebele in Zimbabwe and Kololo in Zambia.

3. Introduction of Military techniques: The Mfecane led to the introduction and spread of new military techniques such as the cow horn style which involved surrounding the enemy.

4. Introduced of new weapons: The Mfecane led to the introduction of new weapons for example the short stabbing spears called the Assegai; these weapons were introduced by the Ngoni from Africa who came to East and central Africa.

5. Depopulation: The Mfecane led to depopulation because many people lost their lives due to the frequent wars, the most affected region was veld where by many people lost their lives.

6. Famine: The Mfecane led to widespread of famine in East and central Africa. The frequent wars caused insecurity that disrupted agricultural production and finally causing famine/hunger.

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