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The Pre–colonial African societies were not static or unchanging they went through various transformations that were influenced by the nature of the environment, climate and soil fertility. Some factors enabled some African societies to be able to transform from other modes of production to the feudal mode of production. There are various factors that contributed to the rise of feudalism in Africa:

1.Nature of the environment: Those areas in African that had fertile soils and received enough rainfall throughout the year supported agriculture on a large scale thus leading to the increase in production which facilitated the rise of feudalism.

2.Advancement of science and technology: The development of science and technology which was due to the making and using of iron tools led to drastic changes in agricultural production, this played a crucial role in the rise of feudalism in Africa.

3.Increase in population: The increase in population was due to increase in food supplies and standard of living. The increase in population resulted into shortage of land that facilitated the rise of feudalism due to private ownership of land.

4.Existence of strong political institutions: The existence of strong political institutions for example states; played a big role in the rise of feudalism in Africa, these political institutions led to private ownership of land that led to the rise of feudalism.

5.Shortage of land: The shortage of land and its increase in value contributed to the development of productive forces since the people were conditioned to use small plots of land. Such factors threatened the existence of communal mode of production consequently paved a way to the increase of feudalism.

6.Strong and well disciplined army: The Strong and well disciplined army led to the establishment of feudal societies and feudal states because the army was used by their leaders to go and conquer the areas of their neighbouring kingdoms hence increase the land for their societies for example in Buganda, Kabaka used army to conquer Bunyoro-Kitare under Kabalega also in South Africa were Shaka used army with establish Zulu Kingdom by conquering small kingdoms.

7.Growth and control of trade: Trade was one among the reasons which led to emergence of some feudal societies. Societies which engaged in trade acquired iron tools and guns and these were used in agricultural production and expansion and consolidation of feudal societies/states. For Example the Buganda kingdom which engaged in trade got iron tools which helped them to get involved in permanent agricultural production of crops such as Banana that ensured constant supply of food and led to the establishment of permanent settlement.

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