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A metal is an element that readily loses electron(s) to form positive ions. All metal have metallic bonds between their atoms.Metal exist in nature as free element or in compound form some of the metal that exist as free element include silver, gold and platinum, most metal exist in compound form. The compound can be oxides, carbonate, sulphate or complex compounds combining two or more of the simple compounds.

1.The Reactivity Series of Metals: The reactivity series is metal is an arrangement of the metals (and carbon and hydrogen) in order of their reactivity starting with the most reactive metal at the top and ending with the least reactive metal at the bottom. The metal which are at the top of electrochemical series are more reative than those which are bellow in the electrochemical series.

2.Reactions with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid: Metal and an acid are used to prepare soluble salts and that this method is only suitable for preparing salts of moderately reactive metals. This is because any metal more reactive that magnesium will react very violently with acids which is dangerous.

Metal + HCl → Metal Chloride + Hydrogen

3.Reactions of Metals with Water and Steam:Some metals are so reactive that they will just react with water immediately if they come in contact. Other metals will react slowly will cold water, but with steam they react much faster. And other metals can only react slowly with steam. Un reactive metals such as silver and gold do not react with water.

Potassium, sodium and calcium react vigorously with cold water and may catch on fire. The products of these reactions are metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. If hydrogen gas being produced accumulates it may ignite and cause an explosion.

 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2

Magnesium, aluminum, zinc and iron are less reactive. They react with steam forming metal oxide and hydrogen. Magnesium and aluminum will react vigorously with steam while zinc and iron react slowly.

Metal + Steam → Metal Oxide + Hydrogen

4.Displacement reaction: The metal which are top of the activity series such as Zinc (Zn), Calcium (Ca) can displace those element which are in bellow of activity series such as Cupper (Cu), Iron (Fe) et.c

CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s)   →   ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

Fe(NO3)2(aq) + Ca(s)  →  Ca(NO3)2(aq) + Fe(s)

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