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Answer.

The long distance trade in East Africa refers to the type of trade that took place between the people of the interior of East Africa and the ones from the coast. The main participants were the Yao, Kamba, Nyamwezi and Baganda from the interior and the Arabs and Swahili traders from the coast. The main items traded were guns, beads and glassware that came from the coast and slaves, ivory, tortoise shells and copper from the interior of East Africa.

The main medium of exchange was batter trade system, which is exchange of goods for goods. The long distance trade provided a crucial role in the formation of states in East Africa as follows.

1. Accumulation of wealth: Those African chiefs who monopolized trade in pre–colonial African accumulated a lot of wealth that was used to build state in East Africa such as Buganda and Bunyoro. Kings such as Mutesa of Buganda, Kabalega of Bunyoro and Nyungu ya Mawe of Ukimbu accumulated a lot of wealth that was used to build strong states.

2. Introduction of guns: The long distance trade led to the introduction of guns into the interior of East Africa. These guns were used to strengthen armies that were used for conquest and expansion. Most of the states in East Africa were established through conquest and expansion.

3. Active participation in agriculture: The long distance trade encouraged people to participate actively in agriculture to produce goods that can be exchanged during the trade. Active participation in agriculture increased agricultural production which accommodated in high population, this contributed to the formation of states. States such as Buganda, Karagwe and Bunyoro were formed in those areas where agriculture was active.

4. Emergency of strong leaders: The long distance contributed to the emergence of strong leaders such as Mkwawa of the Hehe and Mutesa of Buganda. These leaders played a fundamental role in the emergence of states in East Africa by uniting the people

5. Migrations: The long distance trade encouraged migrations in East Africa. People moved from one place to another to take part in exchange of goods. The migration of people contributed to permanent settlement that had a role to play in state formation.

6. Development of towns: The long distance trade contributed to the development of towns in East Africa, these include Ujiji, Tabora and Bagamoyo. These areas acted as trading centers therefore they attracted many people thus contributed to the state formation.

7. Growth of trade routes: The long distance trade contributed to the development of trade routes in East Africa. These routes opened the interior of East Africa.

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