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Answer.

The origin of black American nationalism was the exploitation and oppression to which the black people were subjected. This situation forced the black people to identify themselves as the group apart.Black American nationalism manifested itself in different forms such as back to African movement, pan African movement and the civil rights movement. There were so many hindrances that faced the back to Africa movement, these included the following

1. Disunity: There were some people of African origin who preferred to remain in America because they were not so certain to which part of Africa the movement intended to take them. This complicated the interests of the movement.

2. A campaign of terror: A campaign of terror was unleashed against the members of the universal Negro improvement association all over the state. Many of the members were thrown out of their jobs and the key organizers were killed. This was a serious setback to the cause of the movement.

3. Role of Britain and the USA: Countries such as Britain and the USA worked very hard to frustrate Marcus Garvey, one of the leaders of the back to Africa movement. In 1923 the government of Liberia invited the members of universal Negros improvement association to set up an African base in Liberia but these two countries threatened to attack Liberia indeed when a team of technical experts arrived in Liberia in 1824, they were arrested and deported to the USA.

4. Opposition from white American capitalists: The UNIA was operating in the United States along capitalist lines hence it created stiff competition with the white American capitalists who were determined to assure its failure.

5. Deportation of Marcus Garvey: The government of USA contributed to the failure of the back to Africa by arresting Marcus Garvey and sentenced him to five years imprisonment, he was later pardoned but deported to Jamaica in 1927 hence ending all hopes of reviving the movement hence ending all hopes of reviving the movement.

6. Mass illiteracy: The mass illiteracy of the people of African origin was the biggest challenge that faced the back to Africa movement, almost 90% of the black people were illiterate. Thus they were vulnerable to exploitation. Illiteracy made the people of African origin an aware about their political, social and economic rights.

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