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Answer.

According to Walter Rodney on his book of “How Europe underdeveloped Africa; he argued that under development is not absence of development rather is the process of comparing between one society with another, one country with another and continent by continent. Hence under development is a relative term which denotes a situation of economic, social or even political backwardness when it cover on the situation of comparison to that in advanced countries; African is underdeveloped when you compare Africa with America or Europe. The characteristics of under development are:-

1.Underdeveloped characterized by economic dependence; this is because the LDCs are poor economically and always rely on the developed countries for economic assistance and Aids e.g. Assistance and AID from IMF, WB, European Union, Paris –club etc. Hence the LDCs tend to depend on the rich countries economically e.g. They depend on clothes, machines, cars, goods and technology from developed countries.

2.Underdeveloped week technological and industrial base hence the LDCs import technology from developed countries in their attempt to the industries e.g. the LDCs do import technology like redder, laboratory equipment, agricultural equipment and industrial technologies.

3.Underdevelopment is lack of strong internal linkages of the economy due to weak link between sectors such as agriculture and industry, because of this the LDCs have remained as a producers of agricultural raw materials and the buyers of manufacturing goods from abroad e.g. The LDC s produce cocoa, groundnuts, rubber, wheat, tea, cotton etc. with all these agricultural products are taken to be manufactured as goods in developed countries and later on these goods are imported and later on these goods are imported to the LDCs where they are sold highly.

4.The LDCs there is political instability because many of the third world countries are victims of civil wars and interstate wars due to availability of guns and interface of internal matters by the super powers with regard to the level of development in the LDCs, destruct peace and security and led to the influx of refugees to neighboring countries e.g. Refugees of Rwanda, Burundi and DRC in Tanzania, Refugees of Ethiopia and Somalia in Kenya, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya in Mali etc.

5.Underdevelopment is characterized by price fluctuation of raw materials from the LDCs in the world market due to in-ability of the LDC’s to fix prices for both their export and import, hence all the prices of raw materials and manufactured goods are fixed by the imperialist at the world market e.g. In 2000’s the prices of cotton was US – $5 PER Kg while in 2011 the prices of cotton was 3 US dollar per kg and the price keeps on changing each year with affect the LDC s who cannot fix the prices in the world market.

6.The LDC s are characterized by low per capital income; this is because people in these countries do earn low earnings and majority of them are unemployed and their selling of agricultural raw materials always harvest low profit hence low per capital income for people living in LDCs.

7.LDCs have low growth national product (G.N.P.): This is because countries found in the LDC s always are exploited by the developed countries e.g. their agricultural raw materials in the world market face the problem of price fluctuation, minerals are exploited for the benefit of the rich countries all these led to low gross national product.

8.LDCs have mono-cultural economies in which their economies are based on one cash crop or mineral production due to absence of economic diversification hence with price fluctuation in the world market. These countries suffer much economically.

9.The 3rd countries have low value of their currencies compare to that 7 currencies of the developed countries e.g. the sh. of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania have low value compare with dollars of US, Dutch mark of Germany, pounds of Britain etc. Likewise there is devaluation of currencies in the 3rd world countries it the common feature.

10.There is rate of illiteracy, infant mortality rate and low life expectancy compared to that of Europe or U.S.A, in sufficient calorific intake, high rate of diseases like epidemic diseases i.e. HIV, Ebola and TB.

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