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Answer.

Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body, an instrument used to measure temperature is thermometer and expressed in degrees of centigrade or Fahrenheit scales. There are three main types of thermometer inside the Stevenson screen, these includes minimum thermometer, the maximum thermometer, and six’s thermometer. There are several Factors that affect temperature include: altitude, ocean currents, and distance from the sea, latitude and prevailing winds:-

(a) Altitude : Temperature decreases with an increase in altitude at the rate of 0.6 0 c for every 100 meters. That is why the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro with 5895 meters above sea level permanently covered with ice.

(b) Ocean currents ; Ocean currents are either warm or cold. Warm currents raise the temperature of wind blowing across them while cold currents lower temperature of such winds. Some winds blowing on shore will influence the temperature of such winds in some of coastal areas with the temperature of the ocean currents.

(c) Distance from the sea : Distance from the sea affects temperature. This is because large areas of land masses lying at great distance from the sea do not get the moderating influence of the oceans. Lack of these moderating effects makes the land masses experience very low temperature in winter and very high temperature in summer. This extremely results in high annual range of temperature. The interior of the continent of Asia is a typical example.

(d) Latitude : The amount of heat received at any place depends on the angle at which the sun’s rays strike the surface of the earth and the duration of sunshine. At the equator the sun’s rays reached the earth’s surface at almost right angles. Throughout the year but the angle decreases as one move towards the pole. Therefore temperature decreases with increase in latitude because the sun rays spread over a larger area and its heating effect decreases.
Prevailing wind.

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