A maps is a representation of part of the earth’s surface drawn to scale as seen from above. Maps use colour, symbol and labels to represent feturea found on the ground. Map have the principal purpose of portraying a general description of the landscape of a region including natural and man made features. The following are the five essential of map;-
(a) Title; title gives the name of region, country and the content which is mapped for example Morogoro relief features.
(b) Scale , a scale is a ration betweens the diatnace on the map and the actual distance on the ground. It is used to find actual distance and areas on the ground. Scale are given in form of ratio or line which are expressed in metric system.
(c) Key or legend explain the symbol and sugn s used in the map. The symbols and signs including their abbreviation are international made but there are some which are peculiar to the area of the map, not all the symbols which are in the key apply to the particular map but all signs and symbols applied in the map are shown on the key.
(d) Position; a place can be located roughly by its name and where it is found for example, Accra in Ghana,Singea in Tanzania and lake Tana in Kebya. Place names may be considered adequate where a rough idea of the location of a place is all that is required. An accurate way of doing it is to give its alignment bearing and it’s distance from a known place.
(e) Grid reference; Mist large scale maps have vertical and horizontal lines drawn in them. The line are drawn perpendicular to one another and they are marked at equal interval to form square. The network of square covering a map is known as grid network. Grid reference lines are drawn for the specific purpose of facilitating map reading especially fixing position on the map.