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The partition of Africa marked the end of Africans political independence and the beginning of subjection to foreign rule. In the process of establishing colonial rule, the Europeans powers used different techniques depending on the nature and attitude of the native population towards colonial intrusion. These techniques included the following:-

(a) Treaty signing; This was one of the most common techniques used by the Europeans to establish colonial rule in Africa. This method was used in areas that did not oppose the establishment of colonial rule. The colonial powers convinced African local leaders to sign treaties of protection, protecting them against their local and foreign rivals. It should be noted that these treaties were used by the colonial powers to control African territories. In Tanganyika Karl Peters signed treaties with African chiefs which led to German colonization of Tanganyika.

(b) Use of force; Sometimes, the colonial powers used the military to establish colonial rule in Africa. This method was used in areas that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in East Africa, the Germans used the military against the Hehe in Tanganyika, and the British used the military against the Nandi in Kenya and Kabalega of Uganda. The colonial powers used the military because they were determined to exploit African resources.

(c) Alliances; This method was mainly used in areas where two societies were in conflictsin situation of enmity, the colonial powers allied with one society against the other and finally control all of them together. In Tanganyika the Germans allied with the Sangu and Bena against the Hehe, but after defeating the Hehe the Germans controlled all of them together. In central Africa, the British allied with chief Lewanyika of Lozi Kingdom against Lobengula but when Lobengula was defeated, the British controlled all of them together.

(d) Gun butt diplomacy; This is the colonial powers used treaties of force rather than force itself to force Africans to submit to colonial rule. This method was used by the German in 1884 to force a Sultan of Zanzibar to submitto Karl Peters treaty. In 1897, the British used this method to force Jaja of Opobo to submit to their control.

(e) Mercenary technique; This was a method whereby the colonial powers used Africans to fight against other Africans. The Africans, who were used had no blood ties with those being invaded. In Tanganyika the Germans used the Rugaruga to defeat their fellow Africans.

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