Air pollution is defined as any contamination of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural composition and chemistry of the air. This can be in the form of particulate matter such as dust or excessive gases like carbon dioxide or other vapors that cannot be effectively removed through natural cycles, such as the carbon cycle or the nitrogen cycle. The following are the effects of air pollution in our daily life;-
1. Health problem: the health effects caused by air pollution include difficulty in breathing, wheezing and coughing. Prolonged exposure to air pollution can lead to severe complication such as chronic respiratory and heart condition.
Illness related to air pollution includes asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung and heart disease and respiratory allergies.
2. Higher rain acidity: When sulphur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide combine with water vapour in the atmosphere they form dilute acidic solution. These solutions reach the earth in form of acid rain. Acid rain damage forests and corrodes many ancient building and sculptures made or marble.
3. Depletion of ozone layer: is the layer of gaseous ozone (O3) in the stratospheric atmosphere. The layer protects the earth from harmful radiation by filtering out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun radiation. Gases such as nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and CFCs contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer. When the ozone layer is depleted, harmful radiation from the sun reaches the earth. This radiation causes serious illness such as cancers, blindness and skin ailments.
4. Global warming : is the increase of average temperature near or on the surface of the earth, as a result of what is known as the Greenhouse effect caused by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere acts like a mirror, reflecting back to the earth the heat radiation which would otherwise be dispersed into space.Global warming may result in the melting of ice caps causing an increase in water level in the oceans. Thus may cause flooding in many coastal regions.
5. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is a condition where high amount of nitrogen present in some pollutants gets developed on sea’s surface and turns itself into algae and and adversely affect fish, plants and animal species. The green colored algae that is present on lakes and ponds is due to presence of this chemical only.
6. Effect on Wildlife: Just like humans, animals also face some devastating affects of air pollution. Toxic chemicals present in the air can force wildlife species to move to new place and change their habitat. The toxic pollutants deposit over the surface of the water and can also affect sea animals.