Research is scientific and systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data basing on a certain problem or phenomena. Research work also is the scientific and systematic process of finding the truth concerning a specific phenomena or problem.
Normally research work use scientific stages and finding the solution of the identified phenomena such stages are Identification of problem, Pre-survey, Literature review, Formulation of hypothesis, Research design, Data collection, Analysis of data, Hypothesis testing, Data interpretation and preservation, Report writing. The following are the stage of conducting research;-
1. Problem identification or formulation of research problem; A problem is a question or idea of interest which ought to be answered through data collection. The researcher is required to;- Single out the problem of study and Understand the problem e.g.; mass failure in secondary schools.
2. Pre-surveying; A researcher should make a survey of a place where the research is going to be conducted to know things like transport, weather etc
3. Literature review; This is reading of various publications to know what other people say about what you are investigating.
4. Formulation of hypothesis; This is an assumption based on what one expects to find out in the field. It can be either true or false.e.g mass failure in school is due to inadequate teaching and learning materials.
5. Research designing; This is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in the manner that aim to combine relevance to the research purpose. It is the conceptual structure within which the study is conducted.
6. Data collection; Refers to the collection of various information data in the field to enrich a research. Data collection can be done by observation, interview, questionnaires, or group discussions.
7. Analysis of data; The data you have, make no sense until you convert the information into sensible ideas, and make no sense until they answer the question you had asked in the problem.
8. Hypothesis testing; After data analysis the researcher needs to test the hypothesis formulated earlier the major question here is whether the fact support the hypothesis or not.
9. Data interpretation and preservation; After getting correct information about the study topic the analyzed data is interpreted and preserved in different statistical graphs and charts so that it can be understood to everyone.
10. Report writing; At the end of the research, the researcher has to prepare a report of what has been done the researchers’ finding have to be communicated or exposed to the public.
Generally all the above steps are helpful, if each stage will be done effectively will help to obtain factual information/solutions about various phenomena under consistence /effective preparation.