Mussolini was born in 1883; he was a violent and headstrong boy. He qualified as a teacher but soon he turned to journalism. Mussolini often remarked that Italy needed a dictator who will be able to make “a clean sweep”. Several factors can be advanced to explain why Mussolini and his Fascist party gained political in 1922. It should be emphasized that there was an atmosphere of general frustration in Italy. The following are the factors that led to riseof Mussolini and Fascism in Italy;-
(a) The Italians had been disappointed by the outcome of the Paris peace settlement in 1915. Italy joined the Great War and for the allied powers who had promised her many territories such as Trenton, part of Dalmatian, Trieste etc.
Unfortunately Italy was not given all the territories she was promised. The Italians felt cheated in view that the gains from the conference could not match the costsof the war. The leadership was condemned as inefficient because it failed to defend the interest of the Italian.
(b) Spread of communism and socialism; The growth of communism and socialism in Italy threatened the interests of the rich middle class. The rich middle class was the most powerful group that owned factories and industries in Italy. With the spread of the socialist propaganda to nationalize private enterprise, the economic interests of the middle class were threatened thus they gave their support to Mussolini whom they believed would stop the spread of communist.
(c) Internal insecurity; Between 1919 and 1920, there was a wave of strikes accompanied by violence, coating of shops and occupation of factories by workers. Because of this it was clear that Italy needed a strong and determined leader which Mussolini seemed to be.
(d) Mussolinis character and personality; Mussolini had a strong character and personality and his fascist party was attractive to many sections of the Italian society Mussolini promised to store complete law and order, security and stability at a time when they were badly needed. In addition Mussolini also promised to transform Italy into a great world power.