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Answer.

Economic integrations refer to the combination or grouping together of several countries for the sake of cooperating in various undertakings to as to enjoy economic benefits. It is aimed at increasing the benefits of international trade and my result in political integration, which can be national or inter-state. The following are the constraints (setbacks) on Economic Integration in the Developing Countries;-

1. Low Technology is one of the hindrances of economic integration. This slows down the industrial development among the member countries. Low technology leads to poor quality of product and hence low market for the products leading to poor income generation.

2. Political instability characterized by wars and other problems disrupt peace and security and keep people restless such that they cannot settle and produce or interact effectively.

3. Balkanization (division) of the states is another limitation. This leads to the poor cooperation in different economic aspects since people of one country tend to feel as different in status and belongingness from people of other countries.

4. Poor infrastructure network like roads, railways make cooperation ineffective since movement of factors of production, as well as goods and services can take place effectively between member countries.

5. High degree of poverty among the member countries weakness the cooperation. Because of poverty people fail to move from one country to another, they cannot invest properly in technology promotion and production of high quality goods, and efficient provision services.

6. Problem of common market and the way the local markets operate do not allow for the positive cooperation among the member countries.

7. The resources are not evenly distributed since some countries are naturally endowed with more resources than other member countries. This also leads to poor cooperation as some countries are not ready to share their resources with other countries, which lack such resources.

8. Environmental predicaments (problems) like floods, such as those of Malawi and Mozambique; earthquakes, drought, diseases like EBOLA that hit Uganda, and the75HIV/AIDS pandemic disrupt cooperation due to the fact that people are not physically and psychologically settled and hence, cannot cooperate effectively.

9. Cultural differences are also setbacks to economic integration. This is manifested through existence of many tribes, religions and political ideologies. With different cultural orientations people fail to easily reconcile their differences and work together smoothly.

10. Lust for positions among some of the leaders is another problem as some of them do not like to relinquish some of their powers to other leaders for the sake of promoting economic integration.

11. Some countries are reluctant or are not committed to contributing for the development of the organization leading to ineffective running of the various functions.

12.High illiteracy rate is also another bottleneck. This obstructs the diffusion of technology among the member countries.

13. Explosive population expansion creates pressure for resources and forces the governments to concentrate on solving the problems of population growth like food supply rather than focusing on then economic integration among the member countries.

14. Inferiority among the small countries, which fear being dominated by other countries, some of which are even more developed than them, is a hindrance too. These small and poor develop feeling that they can lose their freedom and the available few resources

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